ERM - Tape 104 - The Druids And The Norsemen


TAPE NO. 104......By Ella Rose Mast



After reading of the Lost Pharaoh's would you be willing to believe that these early Master Builders of this Adamic Race just sat down in Egypt after their great building venture in that land, and stayed in their rocking chairs until they died and were buried? Or would you be willing to accept as we do the evidence that these Master Builders and some of their descendants moved on leaving others to Administrate what they had set in order in Egypt while they fulfilled their Destiny in other places?

As we were searching for more records of the past...Jeanette found in the Library of the Kansas University this book called.."The Druids", and here it is stated that this was a study in Keltic History. Of course we were interested in seeing as to what this author, T.D. Kendrick M.A., Department of British and Medieval Antiquities, of the British Museum would have to say about the Ancient Druids of Britain.

As we have outlined for you before there were Druids in Britain long before the coming of the Kelts, but our author struggled through several chapters in his book pointing out that this study of Druidism is a general knowledge of THE RACIAL HISTORY AND PREHISTORY, AS WELL AS THE SOCIAL ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARLY GALLIC AND BRITISH CIVILIZATION. He however found it difficult to establish the distant past because tradition is laughed at in the modern world. He did point out that the word MAGI is associated with the word DRUID, then added that this does not mean much to a sophisticated Modern student. You will recall that Dr. Swift told us that the Druids as well as the Magi were a part of the Ancient 'Light Carriers' of the race, and in that category we would place them as interesting.

Our author pointed out that John Aubrey was the first to claim that Stonehenge and the other circles of Stone in Britain were Druid Temples (1626-1678), although he did not know just why. He stressed that the Megalithic Stone Monuments in Britain were no more understood by the Intellect than were the Pyramids of Egypt. We can understand this would be true when the Intellect accepted the theory of Evolution as a fact. It would then become a "Myth" that Druidism came from a belief in the God of Abraham, and thus would not be accepted by the Intellect of that period.

However this fact would not stay buried and in the 17th., century A.D., interest in Druidism would once more surface and again the world would move to consider this so called problem of "Druidism". The people of Britain seemed to know that the Mistletoe was the emblem of Jurisprudence, and that Britain early on had the law, and the Intellect were finding study after study mentioning these Druids. They were finding mention of them even in German History. It seemed that from 1650 A.D., on this idea that the Druids were Ancient poets and Priests of Britain had taken hold of the people, and they accepted this idea as a fact.

In France the history of the Druids was found. It seemed that in France also the meeting place of the Druids was described as in a "Grove", and the native forests were held to be a memorial to the Ancient Druids, and the people did not want a single tree cut down.

The more this subject of the Druids was studied the more they found traces of them. In Spain, in the wooded areas of Northern Spain especially these Ancient Druids were found to have existed, and there seemed to have been a connection with them and with the Welsh Bards. They were especially connected with the Keltic speaking people, although there seemed to be a connection going back, on back into Antiquity.

As I was reading this book, and seeing the struggle of this author to reveal many things about these Ancient people yet while trying not to show too much interest in the subject, I thought how much easier it is for us who set aside this Blindness as to the Identity of these Ancient people who came into Britain and built their circles, their observatories, and their civilization, and system of worship, just as they had built their Pyramid of Giza and other monuments and temples. As knowledge increases is it not time to search this trail of Destiny and to fill in the pieces of the picture until you realize that here was a people chosen of God for a great work in earth.

Our Author tells us that the Kelts (Celts), and their country Keltica was known by name to the Greeks about 500 B.C., therefore why not go further on back in Antiquity and find their origin? If Druids were Magi in the East then why not declare them the same people since the Intellect of the time of our author admitted that Mesopotamia and Egypt were sources of all that was notable among the changes in European culture which took place as they say between the 'close of the old stone age (Palaeolithic), and a point when the Bronze Age was established since Agriculture marks their connection.

We would ask:..Why not then read the Scriptures..'There was not a man to till the Soil'...who then was Adam-man?

In this Library book..'The Druids'..someone has been reading before this and marked certain passages showing us that there was a reader who was getting the message. Jeanette assured me that she did not mark the book therefore there is another reader out there who could not resist leaving the message:....'I understand'.

Our author tells us that there was a celebrated 'Druid Grove' near Massilia, Italy and the services conducted there were considered as to have been of great Antiquity. The Cardinal Doctrine of the Druids..which they taught was that ...the Soul does not die, but after death passes from this life to another form and because of this belief there was no fear of death. They had many discussions as touching the Stars, and their movements, and the order of nature, the strength of the powers of the immortal gods, and they were said to have handed down their lore to their young.

Here in this book the Roman Ruler..Caesar gives a description as to the work of the Druids, how they had political as well as judiciary functions. They officiated at sacrifices, and taught the philosophy of their religion but there was a great deal more to their work than being Priests. They held trials, settled disputes, even criminal charges, and they determined the necessary punishment for crimes. The people also held them in respect as very Learned men of their society. In addition they handled matters of National Importance such as intertribal quarrels, which were brought to their Council for settlement. They held National Assemblies and acknowledged the authority of an arch Druid invested with Supreme Power. Their political advantage, and enormous influence over public opinion, by virtue of their position as instructors of the young with their religious sanctions behind their decrees must have allowed them to control the civil administration of their society.

In the writings of Cicero it was found that Divitiacus..a Druid Priest was a friend of Caesar, thus this Ancient Priesthood was a continuing Priesthood, not something which was mysterious. Cicero calls this man a trusted Keltic Nobleman, from a long line of Political Priests of History. In fact our author points out in his chapter on Origin, that there is nothing which can be pointed to with the Druids that is not ARYAN.

Professor MacBain in his 'Celtic Mythology, and Religion' dated 1917., leads the Druids back to Ancient India saying:...'The transmigration of the soul is found in the Ancient people of Aryan India, and also found its development in the views of Pythagorus.

In the footnotes of this book..Lucan tells us that the kernel of the Simple Druid belief was that the spirit in this body has another body somewhere and death is but the mid-point of long life. The author then concludes that this privilege of long life was not within the reach of ordinary mortals for there is no trace of it outside the Keltic world. We of course can understand how someone who knows nothing of the program of God's Kingdom would in their blindness not understand the difference between the worship of the Children of Darkness and the Children of Light and would then call Druidism a blood thirsty religion of human sacrifice....nothing could be further than the truth.

The Oak Tree of the Druids was a symbol of a Family Tree. In Britain in many of the Megalithic tombs the funeral deposits were laid on a bedding of Oak leaves, and mistletoe which gown only on the Oak Tree is also found in those tombs. In symbolism there is mention of the sacrifices performed when the mistletoe is cut, and a white bull is used for this sacrifice. The use of Talismans and Charms was not as supposed simply superstition. The smashing of the Serpent Eggs was also understood by the Ancient people and it also was not superstition. Members of the Druid order were exempt from any Military Service as was the Levi but they often accompanied and sometimes led the armies in battle. The Druids, as was the Magi, were not excluded from the possession of wealth, they married and they had families.

Time after time our author points out interesting fact even tracing the Druids back to Ancient India then he turns around and suggests that you must not attach too much significance to this evidence because it is not direct. The theory of evolution seems to cloud is thinking at times.

On the Isle of Guernsey a 'group grave' was found by Archaeologists. It was a bottle shaped passage about 40 feet long and still roofed with capstones. The excavators found UNBURNED human bones, pottery, stone implements and burned animal bones in this grave and then a pavement of granite flags, yellow clay urns, and a natural earthen floor. No human sacrifices were practiced here. In Britain was also found these long barrow grave chambers for the dead. At Gloucestershire there was two small chambers in one of these burial chambers. These were about six feet square on each side of the barrow. In them were found fourteen or twelve human skeletons. Some of these places were marked on the outside by three large standing stones and capped by a fourth. These burial places were known to be sacred places to the Druids, but later they became declared Pagan altars.

At some of these grave sites there were also stone encircling rings around them, and in Gower Peninsula of Wales there is to be found a ring of stones sixty feet in diameter, flat slabs set upright and in some places overlap each other, and somewhat pressed outward as though forced from the perpendicular by the weight of an earthen mound, or a cairn of smaller stones since disappeared, for which they must have acted as retaining walls. These circles were marks of funeral barrows, and they had a center opening for the tomb. Some of these circles of stone had four or maybe five entrances into the tomb. Some of these circles are to be found in Scotland, and even some in France. One on the tiny Island in the Morbihan Gulf, is 180 feet in diameter, and originally there was an outer circle of stone to this burial burrow, and then a 3/4 circle of stones toward the center. When this book was written 1/2 of it was under water. In the part not under water there was found a mass of Archaeological material although no bodies, could this have been a place of Druid worship in the beginning?

Our author when told that these large circles were observatories equipped himself and went to the Channel Islands, but he really did not know just what he was trying to observe, and he states that at one set he observed directly into the hillside, never did he suggest looking into the hill to see what was there, and never did he suggest looking into the hill to see what was there, and never did he look toward the heavens. Believing there was no way that primitive man was capable of elaborate astronomical measurements, he could not see the connection of the Ancient Aryans with all these circles and observatories. He spent five chapters of his book pointing out facts and then doubting what he was finding. He then closes with one chapter trying to explain his conclusion as to the origin of the Druids. He begins by saying that many centuries of interest in the Druids has passed still in reality Druidism was still a very ordinary faith, and not one that is remarkable either for an advanced philosophy or an unusual theology.

Our author ended believing that the Kelts came from Central Europe however he was amazed at how quickly they built homes and a civilization and seemed to blend in well with the people already in residence. In other places he traced these people back to the third or fourth century B.C., saying they seemed to have somewhat the same religious beliefs. He believed that the Druids must have been the special repositories of the prized native lore which vanished with the coming of the Romans, and that afterwards the Druids were only the magicians and soothsayers of a fugitive and desperate people.

Our author agreed that Stonehenge was Druidic in the sense that it was consecrated to Druidism still he was not prepared to accept the fact that white robed Druids conducted worship at that place.

The blindness such as our author faced as to the intelligence of these Ancient people of our race has also kept us in these later years in the camp of Darkness. Legend discounted by a disapproving infiltrated Christianity has added to this blindness. Christians on a milk diet will never see into the past to learn the great lessons of the past, they can only hand on to the Christ as they try to gaze into the Future.


'The Norse Discovery of America'.

Published by the Norrcena Societyin 1907

Reviewed by Ella Rose Mast

The Apostle Paul tells us that we are but 'Strangers and Pilgrims' in the earth. To be a Stranger you must have come from somewhere. To be a Pilgrim you had to desire to come...we have told you from the Swift Ministry that you volunteered to come to do the work of the Father to build His Kingdom in earth.

In our series of tapes we have tried to trace these Strangers and Pilgrims as they moved out through the race produced by Adam over the earth and we found them by many names, but also in some fashion we found that they hung on to their belief in One God.

In the book...From the Anglo Saxon Classics...from the Swift Library we find the story of the Norse Discovery of America. This discovery about the year 1000 A.D., by the Norsemen is so well authenticated as to be no longer a matter of tradition. This places these Aryans in the North East corner of America about 500 years before Columbus.

These Norsemen were the descendants of those Sea Roving Israelites who left the old land of the Mid-east to go to sea in ships. They always took their families with them for they never knew if they were coming back. Some of them would eventually settle on land in Norway, Sweden, Denmark or other places where their people established themselves. They settled in Iceland and developed there a popular form of government the excellence of which is only equaled by those who moved out over the earth. They produced a literature, and forms of conduct. These concepts they carried with them wherever they roamed. They developed their great double blade axes for their use in the forests and they had a custom in Scandinavia of practicing the use of these great blades. They would pin the figure of a serpent to a tree and then hurl the great axe hopefully cutting off the head of the Serpent.

Iceland became a base for their explorations to the West. This was a land of high Ice Mountains and cold winters. Here they learned to cope with the weather which effected the land and the sea. In 1837 a Danish Scholar, Carl Christian Rifin, published a comprehensive work upon the subject.... 'The Icelandic Discoverers of America'. For so long it was thought that there was no such marks of these people in the New World. We have brought you much evidence of the Aryans being in the New World even before the birth of the Christ Child, and we now find that as this wave of Aryans came they also discovered that someone had been there before them.

From their base in Iceland these Norsemen moved out sailing Westward. The Icelandic man called..Eric..the Red because of his red hair and beard was the leader of the men who explored and colonized the land now called Greenland. Even here they found traces of dwellings of men and fragments of boats and some implements..someone had been there before them.

About 1000 A.D., these people tell of the coming of Christianity to their nation of Ireland, and they recorded that Leif..the son of Eric the Red, passed a winter with King Olaf of Ireland and accepted Christianity and was then sent to Greenland to proclaim it in that land. He took with him a priest and other spiritual teachers and sailed to Brattahlid, and made his home with his father...Eric the Red. If you have wandered why they named such a cold land was thought that if they gave it such a pleasant name then people would be more likely to come to live there and come to stay.

It is reported that on this voyage to bring Christianity to Greenland that young Leif and his crew rescued at sea some men who were clinging to a shattered wreckage of a ship, and then they sailed on from there and found what was called 'Vineland the Good'. At the end of the summer he finally arrived in Greenland at his father’s home and there reported his finding, and his was probably in the year 1000 A.D.

Always traders from Iceland and Norway on ships of 40 men each would travel back and forth over that area of the Atlantic in the summer months. Some of the wives and children were always with them. Any man who thought that he might not return took his family with him. Many times they would discuss this news that there was a land to the South of Greenland and finally they decided to equip a ship for the purpose of finding that land once again. In fact two ships set sail with 160 men to the Southward and West. They found the land and called it Helluland because it was a land of large flat stones. They then sailed further to the South and found many Islands. They called this Markland. Then not much further to the Southward they found Wineland. They landed on a sandy beach in a bay and there they found the keel of a ship but saw no people. They sent a small group of men on one ship further to the South with instructions to return within three days. This they did and they returned with a huge bunch of grapes..thus the name Wineland. Then time running out they returned to Greenland and spent the winter.

Erik the Red's son named Thorstein wooed and married a lady named Gredril Vifilsion and this was probably in the same year of 1000 A.D. This was quite a romance for the land but the following year a great sickness hit the land of Greenland and many of the people died, and one of them was Thorstein. Gredril was also very ill but she managed to survive and in time she would marry again. As her husband lay dying he instructed her to marry a Norwegian, but said he saw her as establishing a home in Iceland, and there she would build a great church, and she would live out her days near this church.

There was another expedition planned and three ships set sail from Greenland headed South hunting for Wineland. One of the ships became lost in a fierce gale and was blown far out to sea, and later that year they landed in Ireland. One of the ships had not been well fitted and they ran short of food. The story goes that as they began to mumble against God even the fish disappeared, but as they turned again to appeal to God even the fish reappeared. The last ship sailed safely on South and they came to a river which flowed into a lake and so on into the sea. Here the people found self sown wheat fields on the land and on the hilly ground they found vines and grapes and every brook was full of fish, and there were great numbers of wild animals in the forests but they saw no people.

One morning they saw a great number of skin canoes coming toward their ship and the canoes were full of swarthy skinned men, broad of cheek. They were brandishing staves in their hands. They looked curiously around for a while then they rowed away around the point to the Southward. The Norsemen then prepared to spend the winter since it was too late to go back to Greenland that year. They built huts on the land, some near the ship and some farther away. They built a stockade for protection, and since no snow came their livestock lived through the winter by grazing.

In the spring early one morning a great number of these skin canoes came from the South, and this time they came to fight. The Norsemen were retreating until they could come to some crags for protection, but one of the wives not understanding why the Norsemen were fleeing cried:..'Why do you flee from these wretches?' She then grabbed a sword, dropped her cloak and ran toward the Indians yelling the Norse war cry. The men of course turned to follow her and the forest people from the canoes turned and ran. Two of the Norsemen fell in the battle and a great number of the Skrellings (forest people). The Norsemen then decided to go back to Greenland, but remember they had found the remains of a boat, telling them that others had been here before them. Some of their records say that one man and his wife and 100 men from the two ships remained there on the coast. A third winter is said to have passed and the men without wives became restless and the company split up and some went on home to Greenland while others were never heard from again.

Always there was casualties among these sea roving people. When they had set out to colonize Greenland, 35 ships had sailed Westward, 14 of them arrived safely, some were driven back, and some were lost. These people remember sailed only by directions from the heavens. But when they could not see the stars of the Constellations they drifted waiting for the sun and the stars. It was in this manner that some had found this land they called Vineland because of the grapes they found. Some of the explorers reported finding a wooden building for grain, on one of their trips, but no people, although they had found wheat growing which had at one time been planted.

In the reports of this land of Greenland it is said that the brother of Erik the Red by the name of Thorwald made a trip to Vineland and did some exploring. This group also experienced some trouble with the strangers in the skin covered canoes. During the night while the men were asleep a voice out of the blue came saying:...'Awake Thorwald thou and all thy company, board thy ship and sail with speed from this land.' The Norsemen obeyed and prepared their vessel for battle, and as they got under way there were countless numbers of Indians in canoes all around them but they were not able to board the ship. However Thorwald was wounded in the battle and they took him back further to the North where he had expressed a wish to make his home. When he died they buried him there placing a cross at his head and at his feet, and they named the place 'Crossland'. They spent the winter and then in the spring they also returned to home base in Greenland.

After they returned to Greenland they learned that the sickness had struck and Gredril's husband had died, that his brother had handled all arrangements and then had taken Gredril into his own home to see that she was cared for as was the Aryan custom. That same summer another ship came from Norway to Greenland..on this ship was a man by the name of Thorfin Karlsfni. He was a very wealthy man and he would now spend the winter in Greenland, and in this time he fell in love with Gredril. This romance was watched by the people because they remembered the prediction of her husband before he died. The courtship was watched with interest and much was the discussion about it. Summer came and still Karlsfni lingered in Greenland and the next winter the two were married.

A discussion had been going on as why not make a voyage to Vineland. Karlsfni encouraged by his wife decided to make the trip and preparations were in progress. A company of 60 men and 5 women were chosen to make the voyage, and they decided to take cattle with them in case they chose to stay a while. Three ships were fitted out, and they were smaller vessels which could be expected to penetrate further up the rivers which they now knew existed in this land. From Ancient records we then learn that these ships of this expedition did penetrate the Charles River into the area of what is now Boston.

Arriving in Vineland the Norsemen built a strong house for their supplies and then a strong stockade around this house. It was here that Gredril would birth a son and she called him Snorii. The Norsemen were always thrilled when a little one was born, after all this meant their race would continue. All the men came to see the 'wee one' and were ever more watchful for his protection. The women were sheltered in the great house inside the stockade. Once before a group of Indians had come to view these strangers and the women had fed them, and the Indians had left their pelts after eating and they seemed friendly.

One day Gredril was sitting in the doorway of the big house near the cradle of her infant son when the Skrelings (forest people) came again. One of the Indians tried to grab the weapon of one of the Norsemen which was forbidden, never would the Norsemen trade or let their weapons go into the hands of the Indians. This time a fight ensued and one of the Indians was killed. The Indians withdrew but the Norsemen knew that these attackers would come again. The Norsemen formed a plan...ten of the men would go out upon the cape as a decoy, and the rest would go into the woods and make a clearing for their cattle. They would put the Bull in the lead of their defense because the Indians had always been afraid of the Bellow of this Bull when they came before. The lake was thus on one side and the forest on the other, and the Skrellings came in their canoes. A great battle was fought, and during this battle the Norsemen noticed that there was one man among the Skrellings...he was of a large size, and fine bearing. They noticed that one of the Skrelling picked up an axe dropped by a Norseman and swung it around and around and he hit one of his companions and the man fell dead. Thereupon the big man seized the axe, and after examining it for a moment he then hurled the axe as far as he could into the sea, and turned to leave the scene and the Skrellings followed him back where they had come from.

The Karlsefni party remained in place throughout that winter, then in the spring not wishing to remain any longer they returned to Greenland carrying vines and grapes and many animal pelts. In Greenland Karlsefni made his great ship ready and he and his wife and son were received with great favor by the most distinguished men in Norway. During that winter they sold their wares which they had brought with them and the following spring they were busy putting the great ship in order for a trip to Iceland. As they waited for better weather a man came from Saxonland and he wished to buy the Karlsefni home here in Norway. He was very insistent and he made such a good offer that it was accepted. Then Karlsefni and wife and son sailed to Iceland, and in Iceland he bought what was known as Glaumboer. Today modern Reynisladr is located in Northern Iceland and a short distance to the South is Skaga-firth, and Glaumboer is somewhat still further to the South. A great home was built on this land and Gredril and her husband lived here for some years. They raised several children in that land and were very well known personalities. After Karlsefni died Gredril and her eldest son Snorri...the son born in Vineland took charge of the farmstead.

Snorri married a local girl and settled in the home property and then Gredril made a pilgrimage to the South, to the land of her kin in another land. After she returned, she and son Snorri had a church built at Glaumboer. She lived out her life span by the side of this church and the Bishops for the church came from this family. Many men are descended from Karlsefni and his wife and they also carry on the mission of this house-hold here in earth.

In the collection of the Annals of Iceland there is to be found, written by a Priest, Magnus Thorhallsson, the report among the recorded events of the year 1121, and it states that Eric the Bishop of Greenland went in search of Vineland. A parchment manuscript is preserved in the Royal Library of Copenhagen also stating this same fact. We find many references as to the search and the finding of the Northeast American coast. We find traces of Romance and intrigue if you were interested in writing novels about these people. You also find that life was hard for the women especially on the outer fringes of these explorations, but Love and Marriage also occurred. These Norsemen would fight at a moments notice with no thought of death, for the women of their Race. We also find instances of these women leading the troops and at times they were invincible.

Yes, sometimes two men fell in love with the same woman and that would cause complications as it always does, perhaps with banishment to the New World. It seems that each nation had their history of these explorations. In each of these records it speaks of what they thought was an Island in the Ocean called Vineland because that was where vines grew wild, which yield the best of wine, where grain unsown grows abundantly. To the North of Vineland they knew there was much ice and cold and also Greenland which they had colonized.

"An Eric of Greenland did the deed,

Planted in Vineland both folk and creed,

Which are there e'en now surviving."

It was a well know fact that toward the end of the ninth century that Iceland had been discovered by roving Northern Vikings. They also knew that a voyage to this distant land was difficult and dangerous, and that it required a large ship with the necessary provisions for a voyage further on which lasted for 1/2 a year. But the knowledge soon spread abroad that brave men and women had established themselves in a new land where the cattle could graze all winter, where the waters were full of fish and the land abounded in wood; and of course these adventurous people would decide to take the chance and go to that land.

The tide of people leaving Norway became so great that the King fearing his kingdom would be left empty, put a tax upon everyone leaving on such a voyage, but still the people left anyway on this new adventure. The men took their families, slaves, cattle and all the necessities of their lives, and soon many kinsmen and relatives followed those who left first. This had been the way that Iceland and then Greenland had been Colonized. In this adventure it took what was called the Long Ship...Langship..for this journey to the New World, which would hold all their possessions.

These Ancient colonists were men of honorable families for the Scandinavians were men accustomed to set a great importance upon family, and how these members would get along living so closely together as was necessary in the practice of colonization. It was among the families of high birth that Ancient tradition were best preserved, as well as the Ancient songs which told their stories. These people also had their religion, and Yule at one time was a festival, celebrated at the beginning of February, some say in honor of Thor...when the Northmen's year began, and they offered sacrifices for peace, and for a fruitful season to their deity who presided over the air, and launched the thunder. This celebration was said to have lasted for fourteen days. They called this festival Jolner (Yule), and this was also one of the names of their hero Odin, who was THE FATHER as he was thought to be riding in the great ship of heaven which eventually took all the family back home. This you find in the Ancient Star Bible and it explains the religion of these Ancient people before the coming of their Saviour.

When Christianity was introduced then the Anniversary of Yule was transferred to Christmas which is still called Yule in Scandinavia, and also in Scotland. In fact the Ancient Picts, another branch of this Aryan race were also of this Northern descent of people and they had the festival at the time of Yule. These Norsemen were said to have loved to write and record and tell in song of their many exploits, and from these records you find traces of their early history, their names which sometimes help to identify this Ancient people.

Iceland was colonized by Norwegians in 874 A.D. but Irish Monks visited Iceland and even resided in Iceland 65 years before the discovery by a Dane of Swedish descent and this about the year 860 A.D., and the land was first called 'Snowland'. In these earlier times there was an Island between Iceland and Greenland which is now concealed or rendered inaccessible by the descent of Arctic Ice, and by these reports we see that these Ancient people were always checking to see if there was land a little further out than that which they stood on. These Norsemen without compass or quadrant, without the advantage of modern science, geographical knowledge or personal experience or previous discovery, without the support of kings or governments guided only by the stars and upheld by their own private resources, and a spirit of adventure crossed and recrossed this broad Northern ocean long before most people today think this was possible. Even Columbus had heard of this land far to the Westward, and the message from the North was that there had been land seen far west of Iceland, and had been assured that 450 leagues East of now Cape St. Vincent carved wood had been found not cut with iron instruments. This had been found in the sea, and similar fragment together with reeds of an immense size had drifted to Porto Santo from the West. Added to this was the knowledge that huge pine trees of unknown species had been carried by westerly winds to the Azores. Human bodies had been found cast upon the Island of Flores, and these were bodies of wondrous form and feature...where did they come from but some ship wrecked upon that ocean. It also should not be forgotten that Columbus visited Iceland in 1477, and there he had access to the Archives of that Island which were extensive. Surely the discoveries by the Norsemen would have at least confirmed his belief that a Western continent existed somewhere to the Westward.

From old reports it seems that the Island (Nantucket) was a favorite spot for the Norsemen to recognize as they came again and again to this land we call America. They recorded that the sun shown from 7:30 in the forenoon until 4:30 in the afternoon, and later men would give the latitude of 41 degrees...24' and 10" and would think this was nearly the latitude of Mount Hope Bay.

Some remarkable monuments and inscriptions have been found on the Eastern shores of North America, which bear testimony to the voyage and settlements recorded, and they complete the evidence which men have brought together. The Rhode Island Historical Society has examined these remains. In the western part of the State of Massachusetts may still be seen numerous extensive mounds similar to the 'tumuli' so often seen in Scandinavia, Tarlary, and Russia. There are remains of fortifications which were not built by Indians, and many rocks which are inscribed with unknown characters apparently of very ancient origin. These are scattered through different parts of the country, and they are rocks which would be almost impossible to inscribe without the aide of iron, or some other hard metallic instrument.

One of the most important finds is the ASSONET ROCK or Dighton writing rock, described in a report by the Rhode Island Historical Society.' It is situated 61/2 miles south of Taunton, on the east side of Taunton River, a few feet from the shore, and on the west side of Assonet Neck in the town of Berkley, county of Bristol, and commonwealth of Massachusetts. It is generally visited from the other side of the river, thus is known as the 'Dighton Writing Rock'. This Rock faces the bed of the river and is covered with water at high tide, is completely covered by water at high tide, twice every twenty-four hours. Its color is bluish-grey. There is no Rock any where near which could be mistaken for this one which shows it has been there for a long, long time. The whole face of the rock is covered with what is called unknown hieroglyphics. But the mark of human power and manual labor are stamped in the ancient hieroglyphics. Later Professors Magnuseum and Rafin would show that this was a Runic inscription, various cryptographs, and combination of figures tell that this is an illustration of the settlement of Norsemen...and they traced the name of Thorifn and the figure C X X I (151) being the number of Karlsfni's associates. There is also the outline of a ship on the rock as well as the figure of a woman and a child, and even the battle with the Skrellings is inscribed.

In 1824 a Runic stone was found on the Island of Kingeklorsocak. This was taken to Copenhagen and deciphered and here was found names of these explorers and the date. Thus it appears that the Norsemen established outposts along the coast-line south from Greenland, and from there they would penetrate further inland. They recorded the finding bears, and the Skrellings (forest people) in various places.

Perhaps to some it is a startling conclusion to find that these so called simple Navigators of the thirteenth century, in very simple barks were most distinguished explorers. Therefore would it not be a great mistake to suppose these Norsemen were altogether ignorant of Astronomical science, and still a greater mistake to associate them with the Vikings of a still distant past? These Norsemen were merchants, and their ships were trading ships and although they discovered new lands, still those lands had already shown signs of having been reached before. These Norsemen were Israelites, and Christianity was brought early to them and their Clergy taught all they had learned since the Birth of The Christ Child, and the establishing of Christianity.

In this New World the Norsemen Merchant Traders found ears of wheat which was no doubt milo or Indian corn being grown, and they found beans growing, as well as pumpkins and squash growing in what is now the State of Massachusetts. The Karlsfin people while in the New World stated that they traded red cloth to the Skrellings and they tell of feeding the Indians who then left their furs....thus trading was going on. The sage says:..that the women fed the Skrellings and then ended by bearing away their purchases in their stomachs. The stories are told of how...when the Bull ran out of the woods and roared that the Indians ran for their canoes. They tell of the great battle when the Indians came howling very loud. They raised up on a pole an enormous ball, something like a sheep's paunch, and that it was a blue color; and this they swung from a pole and when it crashed it made a frightful noise...perhaps they were trying to counteract the bellow of the Bull. This seems to be the time when Freydis came out and saw the retreat of the men to the rocks and asked why they ran, and she being pregnant did not stop her from charging the Indians and they turned and ran. It is also recorded that Karlsfni's son was three years old when they left the New World and returned to their home in Norway.

Ancient records also tell us that in the eleventh century (1018-1026) the rich Chieftain Raudulf of Oesterdal Norway taught his son Sigurd the science of computing the course of the sun and moon, and other visible Celestial bodies, and particularly how to know the stars both by night and by day.

From the 8th to the 11th., centuries these Norsemen carried on a more extensive maritime communication with foreign countries than any other nation in Europe, England, Ireland, Italy, Sicily, France, and Spain, all were visited by the Norsemen. Again were these ignorant savages, these Ancient relatives of ours?

In the 8th., century the high reputation of the Irish for scholarship had been established throughout Europe, and yet for so long these were also listed as a barbaric people. Before Iceland was colonized from Norway, men had been there and they were called Pagan. But these were Christian which can be established...there were found Irish books, bells, croziers and other things from whence it could be seen that they were Christians. They said that these Papas had come from the west. But since Norway was where the Icelanders had come, and Ireland was thus west of Norway then these Papas were said to be Westmen.

In the records we find that the East coast of America was at one time called 'White Mans Land', or Greater Ireland, thus men had been there long before we have records? Who knows.

There is another story which tells of a trading ship from Norway which encountered a great storm, with North East winds and this Norwegian ship was driven far to the West and South West. It is recorded that since summer was so far gone, that as the people prayed that they might escape the sea, they then saw land and they found a good harbor. They had only been on land for a little while when people came to them, and although they knew not these people, still it seemed that they spoke Irish. They took some of the people from the ship and bound them and took them into the countryside, and into an assembly. While this was going on there came a great body of men, and a large banner was born in the midst of this group. Under this banner rode a large and dignified man who was long in years and whose hair was white. All bowed down before this man, who was long in years and hair was white. He ordered the men from the ship to come before him and when they came he spoke to them in the Northern tongue, and asked them from what country they had come. They recorded that as they told him they were from Iceland, that the old man then asked about many of the people living in Iceland. The men from the ship asked who this man was but he replied:...'That I cannot tell you, but I advise not come to this area again.' Then he gave them a gold ring from his hand and, a great sword, and told them that when they returned home to give the sword to Yeoman Kjartan of Froda, but the ring was to be given to the mans mother. And they were to say:...'He who sends these was a better friend of the lady of Froda, then her brother. Say also that I forbid anyone to come to me, for it is too dangerous.' These Ancient seamen then put out to sea and in the fall of the year they landed in Ireland, but in the spring they went to Iceland and delivered the ring and the sword. It was then determined that the old man in the New World must have been Bjorn Asbrandson who had set sail 30 years earlier, and never been heard from since. Bjorn had left Iceland in the Prime of his life in the year 999. It was determined that this meeting in the New World on the Southern shores of the United States must have been the New Ireland which the Northmen spoke of. Professor Rafin was of the opinion that the White mans land or Greater Ireland was the country South of Chesapeake Bay...including North and South Carolina, Georgia, and East Florida. A German writer mentions an old tradition that the ancestors of the Shawnee Indians came from the land beyond the seas. The Norsemen said that this land was West of Ireland, and near Vineland the good, next to or somewhat behind Vineland or Wineland as it was sometimes called. A chart was made of this land of the White Men in the New World. Actually a chart was made by who they do not know but it shows the outlines of all the countries known to the Norsemen soon after their discovery of the American Continent.

It is generally admitted by historians that civilization flowed from east to west always...the Celts proceeded the Teutonic people by a long interval of time. Herodotus, four centuries before the Christian era, places the Celts beyond the Pillars of Hercules and upon the border of the most Westerly region in Europe. Caesar in the first century finds them in Gaul, in Britain, and the Goths their successors should have driven them to seek for regions further westward. The same nomadic principal which brought them from Asia to the British Isles might have wafted them in later ages to the Western World.

The Ancient Illustrious Leibnitz seems to have contemplated the possibility of such a remote Celtic settlement when he wrote:..'And if there be any Island beyond Ireland where the Celtic language is in use, by the deep, thereof we should be guided, as by a thread, to the knowledge of still MORE ANCIENT THINGS.'

The remarkable narrative of Lionel Wafer who resided for several months amongst the inhabitants of the Isthmus of America, contains some remarkable passages bearing upon this subject, in which the author speaks of the language of those people, and how he learned the Indians language because of its similarity to the Irish, or the Celtic. There way of counting was said to be more like the highlanders of Scotland and Ireland.

Wafers description of this tribe of so called American Indians presents a remarkable coincidence...these people were said to wear a sort of long cotton garment, some wore white while others wore a rustic black, shaped like Carter's frocks, hanging down to their heels in the back, with a fringe of this same cotton about a span long, and short and wide open sleeves reaching but to the middle of the arms. These garments they put on over their heads. When assembled they walked about the plantation or place of residence, with their robes on, with between two and three hundred attending their chief...LACENTA. Those in the black gown walked before him and those in the white after him, and each carried a Lance in the same color as the robe. The ones in the long white gowns reaching to their ankles with fringes at the bottom, carried in their hands a half pike.

The Celtic language spoke of the affinity between the American Indian and the Celtics upon the American shores before the Spanish came. Charles II hardly knew the extent of his territories in America. The Tuscorards and Doegs of America spoke the language of the British or the Welsh in America before the Spanish came.

The Spanish were also surprised as they came into Mexico and heard of the strange people who had come early and taught them the knowledge of God, of Immortality, and their rites of religion. It was also remarkable to learn that these people came by Sea, and the inhabitants found them to have been men of courage, that they built bridges, towns and anything they needed. This idea that there was no vessel capable of sailing to the New World, a distance of over 1600 miles before the time the Spanish came with Columbus has to be thrown out the window.

In the old Irish MS it is reported that Moghcorb, King of Leath, Mogha or minister prepared a large fleet in the year 296 A.D., and invaded Denmark. From then on other fleets are listed as being used in different wars. Then in the Irish records, the Irish received the name of Scots or Scoti, from the Milesius settlers of Spain long before the birth of the Christ Child. Thus these people as we have pointed out before were roaming the globe from the days of Enoch. The Cassiterides visited by the Phoenicians (Enoch's descendants) were as today The British Isles. This is a proven fact.

Caesar merely mentions the origin of the Druids as traditionary, and Sharon Turner states that Druidism started with the Phoenicians or Carthaginians. That Druidism started in Britain and was from there introduced into Gaul. All agree that Druidism was introduced into Britain by foreign visitors. The Druids were concerned with Divine matters, superintended public rites, settled controversies, inheritances, boundaries of land, and punishment. They used a written language, they understood the movement of the stars, and their magnitude of effect on the earth, on the nature of things, and power of the Immortal Gods.

In the works of Ptolemy and Avienus we are led to the conclusion that hundreds of years before the Roman invasion of Britain...that Ireland was a depository of the Phoenician beliefs, which were then adopted throughout the British Isles under the form of Druidism. Their form of worship presents a marked resemblance to the secret mode of writing found and used by hierarchies of the East.

Since the Phoenicians were great navigators, and had knowledge of the construction of ships then they were not driven to use rude covered canoes to transport Celtic settlers to the American Coast. The hulls of those ships were of Oak, the beams a foot in breadth and fastened with iron, the bottom was flat, the sails were of leather, and the anchors were secured by means of chain cables. There was no wanting of ways to transfer to the shores of America long before the period when Great Ireland-Vineland became known to the Norsemen.

Thus the Norsemen did come to the New World and a statue of Lief Erickson commemorating the story stands at the end of the Commonwealth Avenue in Boston. But there were also people before them who built the Ancient city of Norumbega. No, the French did not build it, they found the ruins of it, and also a moss overgrown cross in the forest. At one time there was in this place a graded area of 4 acres paved with field boulders. At the base of the bluffs along Stony Brook were ditches or canals extending far into the countryside, and above the ditches were walls made of boulders from 3 to 5 foot high. This city was determined to be located on the Charles River in Massachusetts. Who ever built the city had used the canals to float logs down to their vessels. The wall had also kept the debris from the canals. It is also known that logs from Vineland were taken to Greenland for buildings.

In the geography of this Western World according to the old Norsemen

No. 1...was Helluland (Newfoundland)

No. 2...consisted of Markland (Nova Scotia)

No. 3...Vineland (Massachusetts, or some part of New England)

No. 4...stretched far to the South of Vineland and this was Whitemans Land or Great Ireland.

'Truth crushed to earth shall rise again'.

These facts have laid long in old neglected libraries, and truth may long lie unknown under the dust and rubbish of the ages, but it is like a ray of light from a star in some far off region of the Universe. After the time of thousands of years that ray reaches some other heavenly body and gives it light.