Volume 7 - Book 56
ANSWERS TO Thomas Paine and others ----Age of Reason.
Epistle of Peter 2:1-2. There shall be false teachers among you, who privily shall bring in damnable heresies, even denying the LORD that brought them, and bring upon yourself swift destruction. And many shall follow their pernicious ways, by whom the way of truth shall be evil spoken of. But the truth of the Apostle's words is verified by the blasphemous books that are published against the authenticity of the Bible. In Thomas Paine’s---Age of Reason---I shall point out his folly and the darkness of his understanding, concerning the scriptures, knowing that his former publications hurt many a week mind. And have many become atheists, because his reasoning is so artful and wickedly contrived to make a mockery of the scriptures. And which men by carelessly reading may not discern his folly. And therefore are carried away with his pernicious doctrines. I had heard much talk of his books and the injury they have done too many. But I never read any of them before the trial of Eaton, when the third part of Paine’s 'Age of Reason' was brought to me. The first time in reading I saw the artful working of the book, but I did not at the first reading discern his folly. But on pursuing it with more serious attention I soon saw from what manner his reasoning came, which he calls a divine gift, given him of God. But his reason, which he boasts of, came from the same source that St. Paul speaks of---"That in the latter times, some will depart from the faith. Giving head to seducing spirits, which is the influence of the devil. This was what Joanna thought influenced Mr. Paine's mind. He thought that the influence upon his mind was a gift of reason, given to him from God. Paine quotes the verse from Isaiah 53. And he says that Isaiah employs the whole chapter in lamenting the suffering of some deceased person of whom he speaks pathetically.
Joanna of course disagreed, saying this does not agree with the following words of Isaiah:--"HE is despised and rejected of men. And we hid as it were our faces from HIM. HE was despised, and we esteemed HIM not.' Then turn to the 1st of the chapter and Isaiah says: who hath believed our report and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed? This cannot be just a friend of Isaiah. This is wanting to know who it is that is to die for the transgression of (Adam) Man.
Joanna then proves that this passage is talking about our Savior. And she says that Mr. Paine was not able to discern this. The Jew did not discern this either. The Jews did not understand this passage. And we say that of course they were not to understand this message, so why turn to them for interpretation.)
Mr. Paine said that if Jesus Christ was the person the church represents HIM to be, that which would apply to HIM, must be something beyond the lot of mortal man; and there are no such expressions in this chapter of Isaiah, nor any other chapter in the Old Testament.
Joanna then points out that this shows the absurdity of Mr. Paine's reasoning and the darkness of his understanding, that he had not discerned enough to see that this chapter speaks of something more than belongs to mortal man.
Mr. Paine then says that the New Testament was fabulous, and shown to be false, but Joanna says that unbelief is no proof of truth. But unbelief is sure to err, and show how men are blinded against the truth. How ready to believe things impossible, but how hard to believe the things that are possible.
Mr. Paine said that there is no history written at the time of Jesus Christ, when he is said to have lived, that speaks of the existence of such a person, even as a man.
Joanna points out that ancient histories have been written concerning our Savior. For instance Josephus the historian wrote about this period saying that about this period there arose one Jesus, a man of consummate wisdom; if indeed he can be deemed just a man. He was celebrated for his power of working miracles, and those who were curious and desirous to learn the truth flocked to him in abundance. He was followed by immense numbers of people. Jews (Judeans) as well as Gentiles. This was that Christ whom the Princes and great men of our nation accused. He was delivered up to the cross by Pontius Pilate not withstanding which those who originally adhered to him, never foresaw HIM. On the third day after his crucifixion he was seen alive, HE wrought a great number of marvelous acts. Therefore there remains unto this day, a sect of people who bear the name of Christian that acknowledge this Christ for their head.
(Now who was Josephus? He was a Hebrew historian. And yes, I know he was called a Jew. But so was everyone else in Judea. But read his book and in its beginning, he tells you that he came thru the lineage of the Israelites, and from the King line. Understand what he is saying and you see this.)
Paine then said: ---The word of God is the creation we behold, and the word of God revealed to man all that is necessary for man to know of his creator.
Joanna then replies, How blind and absurd is such reasoning. What can he suppose God created (Adam) man for? To be like the beasts that perish? Does man want no more information about their creator, and Savior than the Beasts of the field do?
Mr. Paine then said that there is none but a God can inspire a foreknowledge of things and then afterwards fulfill them.
Joanna answers that the Gospel of Luke has a clear prophecy in answer to the fulfillment of our Savior's word. For he foretold the Jews of the destruction to come upon them for He said: They shall fall by the edge of the sword, and should be led away into captivity into all nations and Jerusalem is to be trodden down of the Gentiles (nations) until the 'Time of the Gentiles be fulfilled.’
Titus the Roman wrote: ---As he bombarded Jerusalem---Had we not been aided by the immediate interposition of heaven, it would have been impossible that we should have possessed ourselves of these fortresses. In a word it was God who fought for us, and aides us against the Jews (Edomites) for a deed hath been accomplished, which the hands of men, nor force of engines could never have effected. Therefore as clear as daylight or the brightness of the sun, the Jews (the Edomites now in control of Jerusalem) stand against the Gospel, which to them is carnal reasoning. That is darkened by the wiles of the devil, and cannot look into or understand. But this our Savior foretold in his Gospel, what would be the infidelity of man, at his second coming. For HE said --it would be like in the days of Noah, so shall the coming of the 'son of man' be.
In the days of Noah they were so full of infidelity and unbelief of any revelation given from the LORD, that they mocked the warning given by Noah till the deluge came and swept them away. Just as he did at his first coming the Savior also tells us what the situation will be like at his second coming.
Joanna then continues to point out the error in Mr. Paine's interpretation of the bible or where he things Salvation is held out. The Apostle Paul when he speaks of the election, to wit, this is the redemption of our bodies.
Now; the scripture says there is no difference between the Jew (Judean) and the Greek, for the same LORD is over all, and is listening to all that call HIM, for whosesoever shall call upon the name of the LORD shall be saved. Then Peter opened his mouth and said:--Of a truth I perceive that God is no respecter of persons, but in every nation, he that feareth him and works righteousness is accepted with HIM.
Joanna says she brought these scriptures out so men can understand the meaning of election. How it stands for the end, when the redemption of man takes place. But the way the Calvinists place election is a fuel to the fire, to strengthen arguments of deists and atheists. Which Paine hath brought forward.
Joanna points out the many scriptures that point us to the LORD of our belief. And that there is even psalms, and hymns, and spiritual songs all for you. Thus, remember that perfect love casteth out fear.
"If the world hates you, then know that it hated HIM before it hated you. Then remember the world that Jesus said unto you:--'The servant is not greater than his LORD'. If they have persecuted ME, they will also persecute you. If they have not kept my sayings, they will not keep yours. But all of these things shall they do unto you for MY NAME"S SAKE. But when the 'spirit of truth comes it shall guide you into all truth.
Joanna says she had live 50 years in the world without any trouble of persecution. Then when she mentions the coming of 'the spirit of truth' everything changes right away. And she points out the three woe's of the bible. But now the second 'woe' which was the troubles to come upon (Adam) man, is now past. The two witnesses to the truth of the scripture are -- 1. Our Savior, who bore of himself when he became flesh; and dwelt among men. And 2. Is the witness of His spirit which HE promised to send to guide us into all truth?
It is said that in the beginning that God created (Adam) man in his own image, in the image of God created he also created them, male and female. And our savior then said in his Gospel that the woman (Israel) had wrought good work on HIM, that should be preached in the whole world, wherever the gospel was preached.
Now; let the critic's say why our Savior condescended to be born of a woman, and why HE appeared first to women, after HIS resurrection form the dead? Did he not tell them to go and tell his brethren that He had risen? Actually who was the promise made to in the fall, the man or the woman? Actually we find that the LORD chose women to prophecy even before our Savior was born of woman. Then do men suppose the LORD will not visit the woman by His spirit to warn that the end is at hand?
Now; could the wisdom of the world be counted as foolishness with God if all understanding was given to man? Then the scriptures could not be understood or fulfilled, for the wisdom of the wise men is to perish and the understanding of the prudent men to be hid.
Joanna then with the help of the 'spirit of truth' is able to answer all charges brought against her. the church uses the LORD'S Prayer. And people repeat it often but they do not notice that they are praying for the kingdom to be established on earth.
A prayer in the church service for the 6th Sunday after Epiphany (the church festival commemorating the visit of the Magi to Bethlehem and manifestation of Christ to the Gentiles) "Oh, God, whose blessed son was manifested. That he might destroy the work of the devil, and make us the sons of god, and heirs of Eternal life; grant us we beseech thee, that having this hope we may purify ourselves even as he is pure; and when He shall appear again, with power and great glory. We may be made like HIM in his Eternal and Glorious kingdom. Where with thee 0 Father and thee O holy ghost he liveth and reigneth ever and ever---ONE GOD WORLD WITHOUT END.
BOOK 55--------Volume 7-----------by Joanna Southcott.
The controversy of the spirit with the Worldly wise.
The world by the wisdom known not of God, neither do they know His ways, or his footsteps which have been hid in the great deep, and His footsteps man have not been able to find. The professors of religion have brought forth scriptures affirming that they have already been fulfilled. This strengthens the atheist in their unbelief, who clearly discern that they are not all fulfilled. By these errors thousands are stumbling as some do not believe there is a god to reveal His will to man. Others believe there is a God, and that scripture contains HIS written words yet they deny the fulfillment of them. Others quote the Christ from the Cross --"IT IS FINISHED," and claim this is everything. But it is only that Satan is to have no more control over him.
Now; the 'spirit says' Moses was sent to deliver MY people and bring them into the promised land. I will now show you that the laws given to Moses shall be fulfilled in the end. Yes Israelites were delivered from Pharaoh and this is a shadow of what is to come. For that fulfillment has not fully taken place as yet. For neither Grace nor truth came to (Adam) man. Do not the nations go on as before? Did not MY people meet with many enemies after this? Must I now not b ring in the promised rest I promised to (Adam) man? There is thus a redemption of the spirit which is done, but a redemption also of the body is still to come.
The 'spirit of truth ' is still speaking as to the redeeming of Jerusalem, and this does not mean barley the spot where it once stood. The old palace of Jerusalem was not a blessing in those days to man kind, certainly not to (Adam) man. The meaning of the words here is the New Jerusalem that comes down to (Adam) man at the last. It means the paradise they were created in at the first.
BOOK 54-----Volume 7 ---By Joanna Southcott.
THE CONTROVERSY OF THE SPIRIT WITH THE WORLDLY WISE. --as given thru Joanna Southcott.
From the 'spirit of truth'--Those that see their bibles clear at all will see that by this Second coming that I am coming to fulfill the promise to the woman in the fall. That enmity was kindled between Satan and the woman, between his seed and her seed. This they must discern as at the first then at the last, let the revelation of John show the enmity that would be kindled in those floods Satan would work in man to cast out in malice against the woman when I come to bring in the redemption of (Adam) man. These scriptures men must discern in what manner they were first spoken and then must discern in what manner I warned thee, that men would act when thy warning went out into the world. I warned thee (Joanna) that as the Living waters gushed out that dirty water would froth forth, and foam. Thus, Joanna is backed up for her interpretation of scriptures by 'the spirit of truth'. Thus be careful for as her words go out to the world the dirty waters will then gush forth.
BOOK 52 ------Volume 7------Joanna Southcott.
TRUE PICTURE OF THE WORLD AND A LOOKING GLASS.
In the early ages we find this enmity between Cain and Abel and then between Esau and Jacob. Thus we may discern how he that was born after the flesh, persecuted him that was born after the spirit. And the prediction to the Jews by our Savior hath also followed them to this day. But the truth of the Gospel hath stood also to this day. For all the power and malice of the Jews could not overthrow it. Thus, as the past ages, we see the present. It is tho a looking glass would let men look into their own hearts and see if they are filled with the same spirit of malice and envy as the Jews were. This same spirit will continue in the world until the adversary is destroyed.
It seems that two women other than those who had been around Joanna tried to come into the picture and they claimed they were connected by letters. But they are imposters. Joanna then is also accused of drunkenness, and many other things that they had not brought out before, and she has to answer these charges, but she goes to the scriptures for answers.
BOOK 51----volume 7----by Joanna Southcott.
ANSWERS TO FALSE DOCTRINES.
Two books were brought to Joanna, the one denying the Divinity of The Christ, and the other denying the prophets. One was the doctrine of the Unitarians. The other is the New Testament in an improved version in the Evangelical magazine, September of 1808.
Joanna then says that this is the New Jerusalem that is coming down to make the earth as a heaven for man. The glory of the light that comes from the LORD will be as a precious stone unto man. Therefore it is also written that the Tribes of Israel do not refer to any special nation, but the tribes of Israel are the tribes of Faith. This city ---New Jerusalem said to being so beautiful that it is of pure gold. The beauty of this city is the fulfillment of MY WORDS and PROMISES. Those are much greater desired than the beauty of the city. This city will not be filled with pure gold, but the pure WORD. As this tree of knowledge of good and evil is done away with they will find that the pure gold remains to fulfill MY WORD.
Now; I want you to take special notice of these next words of 'the spirit of truth' ---Let no man vainly imagine the meaning of Israel, of Isaac, and Jacob, or the seed of Abraham alludes to the Jews. For I have already told thee, and I now tell thee again the seed of Abraham is the SEED OF Faith.
BOOK 50---Volume 7------Joanna Southcott.
Answer to a sermon by the Reverend Jos. Smith.
This sermon begins by saying that the Lying Prophetess detected. Joanna responded by saying that this man, this Rev. Smith, has not proved one word of her prophecies to be false. But it is also impossible for the man to prove them false. For the truth of them now stands before every nation because before they sprang forth "I TOLD MEN OF THEM."
Jesus told his disciples and Apostles that a greater revelation would come at the end, than was given to them at that time. For they could not bear more at that time.
The Apostle Paul then wrote that; --'We know in part; and we prophecy in part. But when that which is perfect is come, then that which is in part will be done away with. For now even we see thru a glass darkly but then face to face.’
Then the critic called attention to Abraham and quoted: ' Beloved let me freely speak to you concerning our father Abraham, when the LORD gave the promise to him. In thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed.' Did God tell Abraham that all the nations of the world should be blessed by Joanna Southcott? So look to Abraham our father and to Sarah our mother who bore thee, not to Joanna Southcott. Joanna answers Abraham was the father of the faithful and obedient. But THY SEED SHALL BLESS ALL NATIONS OF THE EARTH, Because thy hast obeyed my voice.
Now; you must then discern how the seed of Abraham went on, before we come down to Moses in the land of Egypt, where the LORD worked miracles to deliver the children of Israel from the hand of Pharaoh. The Jews contended that they were from Abraham, and that they had never been in bondage. (But this claim was thru Esau). But if they had been from Abraham thru Isaac and Jacob they would have been in bondage in Egypt, and they would have thus been the seed of Faith looking forward to the coming of the Messiah.
Joanna then contends that hope also enters into this picture, for it is the hope of Things to come that we have not as yet seen, that drives on the children of Abraham, as they move on thru history. Joanna then quotes from the 'spirit of truth' saying: "I would never have been born of woman, if I had not intended to have redeemed the woman. But I was born of her, so I was born for her, to make her sons, joint heirs with ME. This communication was given to Joanna in August of 1803.
Joanna thus thinks that the accusations brought against her are like those of old were against Jeremiah when he tried to speak the words of the LORD to the people.
The content of this book was taken from the words of Joanna by Ann Underwood. In June of 1808. (notice other people are now helping in this ministry and they say from the words of Joanna but you have to be careful and remember just what she did record when the 'spirit of truth ' had talked to her.
BOOK 49---VOLUME 7---Joanna Southcott.
An account of the trials and bills of exchange,
Where in the deceit of Mr. John King and his confederate also under the pretense of lending money is exposed and their acts brought to light.
Here Joanna is bringing to light this practice of some men who promise to loan money to those who cannot pay their bills. They collect all the payee has, and promise to pay the bill and let the payee have more time to pay off the bills to them. But they never paid the bills with the money they collected from the payees. So the people are still dunned for their bills. And of course they now have less money than they had for they paid some to the men who are supposedly paying the bills. Joanna tells these men that the LORD will come to intervene in that situation and she quotes the scripture to show that this is true. Saying that as these scenes of iniquity are brought to light then this comes, under the crimes of unjust dealing which the LORD concerned himself about in the past. Thus, HE will punish the evil doers. In the case of Ahab there was no murder this was just the trying to take possession of Naboth's vineyard. The murder was concerning their character.
Now; this was a form of usuary and the scriptures were against that procedure so Joanna quotes from the scriptures against this curse of God which the prophets spoke against. Calling this unjust usuary. This was a process for swindling men out of their property.
Then Joanna showed her friend how this would work for Mr. King who was using this process of unjust usuary. The parable spoke of such a man and how he would pretend to be such a gentleman and when people came to complain he would serve them a large dinner and seem very friendly. Then would call them to walk in the garden. As they came to a pool then a large dog called Caesar would attack the visitor and drag him into the pool. After he was drowned, they would take him out of the pool and take everything he had on him. Finally to show what God would do to someone like this, then a gentleman came and was treated to the dinner, and then as they came to the pool here comes the big dog. But this gentleman knows this dog. Had him before he was taught to attack people as the usuary man was doing. So he called the dog by name and said:--Caesar don't you remember me? And the big dog then attack his present owner and dragged him into the pool. After his death they searched the pool and found all those other bodies.
Thus from the prophets Joanna would condemn Mr. King and point out that prophecies were given thru the ages to both women and men. And that the LORD will declare the end of things, to his servants and to the prophets.
So if the revelation of the LORD is denied, then the prophets throughout are denied and Mr. King must then swear falsely, as he swears by the prophets, if he denies the truth of their words.
BOOK 48----VOLUME 7-----Joanna.
A caution and instruction to the sealed.
This sealing was simply that people signed their names saying that they believed and were looking for the coming of God's kingdom in earth and for Satan's kingdom to finally be destroyed. It was a petition with their hearts and hands for what our Savior had taught us to pray for. So that the earth may be the LORD's and the fullness there of, and that we be delivered from Satan's power. Thus those who join hands and hearts and subscribe with their hands unto the LORD thus petition for the fulfillment of HIS Words. And they are then made heirs of God. Not that they are already so, but that they may be made so, to enjoy the 'tree of life' and be free of Satan's power. This is why they were sealed. If they fall away then that proves that they are not heirs of Promise.
'The Spirit of truth said that the sealing is for the end time. And for those who stand with the Lamb on mount Zion. Notice how the seals are opened in heaven, before the sealing is pronounced in earth. Then notice the words of Peter:---"Behold I lay in Zion a chief corner stone elect, precious, and He that believeth on HIM shall not be confounded."
Notice that the corner stone is for the Elect, and that it is for the elect that the days shall be shortened. Then He brings in (Adam) man's redemption. And notice how the words are taken in part; the corner stone being laid for (Adam) man. To make a Royal priesthood to them that believe that HE is precious. But this is not to the disobedient, for it is written that this is a stone of stumbling to some men. This is the Faith in them that causes them to believe. At the end of the chapter we read "Ye were as sheep going astray. But are now returned to the shepherd, and bishop of your souls.'
Thus discern that the promise made at the first will be accomplished at the last. Then MY people shall know that I am the root and offspring of David, and the bright and morning star. The Spirit of truth has thus come to warn you. That whosesoever will may come, and take of the waters of life freely, to be made heirs of Christ, according to the words of the Apostles.
Then as a caution to the sealed people.---Those sealed to be Elect members of Christ. They must strive to make their calling and election sure. For they are not all of Israel that are in Israel, neither are they all sealed in Faith that are sealed in their names. Here the LORD will judge from the heart. The sealing has gone out but like the net cast into the sea it hath gathered in both good and bad. Many who came are robbers professing Faith when they have none. Even after the command was given that none could come in except by Faith, still they came.
The 'Spirit of truth then showed Joanna the names of those who had signed that were to be cast out. Only those believers, true believers in heart and mind, unshaken in Faith, and perfect in obedience to the heavenly calling shall be the sealed number to stand to the end. It is thus not their name being sealed that will be of any use to them, unless their hearts are sealed in Faith and they Love MY Kingdom.
Now; as to the Communion, the bread and the wine. Not all that take the bread and the wine are sealed, for to stand on mount Zion. Joanna then says in prayer:--'Thou that filleth the heavens with thy majesty, fill the earth with thy goodness, that all the earth may praise thy name, from the end of the earth. That all the earth may see they salvation. And give unto the LORD the glory and honor due His name. That thy delight may be with the sons of (Adam) man. And they may walk in the light of thy countenance. That righteousness and truth may meet together. That love and praise, and Peace may kiss each other. That the promise made in the Fall may now be fulfilled. And the tree of life which was preserved for (Adam) man be acknowledged. Grant, O God, it man now come to him, that the flaming sword may destroy the enemy, our adversary, which is the devil, and our God be all in all. And may we all unite in heart and soul in this petition and request that death and hell be swallowed up in victory and dust and ashes whom the LORD created may set forth His praises world without end. This is my desire. ---Joanna Southcott.
BOOK 47----VOLUME 7--by Joanna.
A letter sent to Mr. Huntington with remarks on the Calvinistic and Roman Catholic Doctrines. And the unbelief of the Jews at the destruction of Jerusalem.
The spirit of truth then speaks calling attention to who is speaking, and to the fact that a new thing is being declared.
Mr. Brothers then begins to bring on his own fall as he misquoted and misunderstand and misinterpreted different scriptures, such as when Pilate asked Jesus if he was a King. Jesus replied that to this end he was born, that he came into the earth for that purpose. Thus HE came into earth for the purpose of setting in place at this time so that in the kingdoms of this earth would become the kingdoms of our LORD and His Christ at a later date.
As Joanna and friends went to the Chapel for services of this man, who was condemning Joanna they found that they could not get in unless they purchased tickets, unless they wanted to set in the section reserved for the poor, which was not full. They purchased tickets and then when they got inside they could find no seats. Joanna did not think that this was right. So the controversy began. Joanna saying that there were a people of God before the foundation of the world. And Mr. Brothers says that is the Jews who were to be restored.
Joanna then quotes the words of the Savior to Peter which were:---Whom do ye say that I am? And Peter answers:--'Thou art the Christ, the son of the living God.' Jesus then said that flesh and blood did not tell this to Peter, but only the spirit from on high could have told him this. Then He said: Upon this Rock shall I build my church.' It was not upon the man Peter the he would build his church but upon the spirit of the living God that informed Peter. Thus, was the foundation of the true church laid. And as the apostles and disciples preached they did not tell the people to depend upon them, but to look unto the crucified Savior. For that is the road to salvation----Faith in such a Savior.
THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM---
The Jews had been warned, and a comet in the shape of a sword had hung over the city of Jerusalem for the space of a whole year. Then before the revolt a most remarkable extraordinary light was seen about the altar. This continued for a short time of about 1/2 hour. It happened at the 9th hour of the night, in the 8th month, preceding the celebration of Passover.
At this time, of the festival, the proper person was leading a cow to the altar to be sacrificed and she delivered a Lamb right there in the midst of the temple square.
The eastern gate of the temple was composed of solid brass, and this gate was of immense weight. It took 20 people to open it. They closed ti each night. But that night at the 5th hour the gate opened by itself.
Before this a certain man had come to Jerusalem and for seven years and five months he went around the city, and on the wall of the city he would say:---"A voice from out of the east, a voice from the west, a voice from the four corners of the world, a voice to the nation at large. And the people grew tired of him and they persecuted him but he continued until the siege came on Jerusalem. Then when he mounted the wall saying: "Woe, woe to this city, this temple, this nation and its people.---woe, woe unto myself. Then a stone thrown from a machine ends his life.
The 'spirit of truth' then said: --Know the parable. I gave thee before and what I compared the jews to, and know from the parable how often the warning was give. And how often it was slighted unto sudden destruction came upon them. This I compared to the Jews as well as the people of this Age. The Jews had the warning first given from Me. That the city should be destroyed, and the manner in which it should be destroyed. This warning was given but denied and so today the warning is given unto the Gentiles (the nations Of Israel) for they are given by the 'spirit of truth.'
Thus today and even in the early days there were warnings given and signs but the spirit says, it is a mockery to keep a house in honor of the LORD as they Jews were doing, and it be not honored of man, by living according to the laws of the LORD. And this of course was not done by the Jews, either from the Law or the Gospel. So I have told you---the wheat and the chaff were separated amongst the Jews when I came in the flesh, and the chaff went on to destroy the wheat. So in the end it is left for stubble, till they began to destroy themselves. They were wrong to think that to preserve the temple would save them, when there was no man of God left in it to carry on the customs.
Now; do you (Adam) men suppose the spirit of the Brided refers to the walls and the buildings as did the Jews? Yet today the men of today have a tendency to rely on their churches, as did the Jews when they took over the temple.