ERM - Tape 086 - History Of The Marranos; The Spanish Inquisition





1. The History of the Marranos.

2. The Spanish Inquisition.


Our Author, Cecil Roth, was born in England in 1899. This writing was published in 1959 by Identity Christianity. He was considered an emanate Author of Jewish extraction. In these two books are his version of the history of those people in Spain and Portugal called 'Marranos'..these who were 'Secret Jews'. He traces them to other countries of Europe as well as into the New World.

We have learned in our studies of the old books, that as those who were in charge of the Temple in Jerusalem and their brethren at the time of Christ were dispersed from Palestine, they also went West if possible as did Israel. These were those who did not accept YAHSHUA..Jesus as Messiah, did not accept the New Covenant of Baptism and Resurrection. They were still clinging to their belief in what is called 'Judaism' which has a different Messiah and God.

In the Western civilization after a struggle of many years, finally we find Christianity gaining a stronger foothold in the west, and we also find that not being able to stop the so called 'New Faith' in Jesus as the Messiah, the enemy then turned to joining the church and especially the church of Rome. They thus gained admittance to the Catholic Faith and sought to change the doctrines from the inside. This they were able to do to a certain extent as they had done in old Judea, using the power of their wealth, and inter-marrying with Israel after professing the Christian Faith.

This phenomenon of so called 'Marranoism' was a common occurrence as the Christian West gained in superiority. There in the western nations and especially in Spain and Portugal..the Marranos..'Secret Jews' were either converted to escape a special tax, or they migrated to other areas. And altho they converted to Christianity and were called..'New Christians'.. still in secret they remained Jews, and retained their rituals of worship in secret...thus the name of 'Marranos'.

The name Marrano came from the appearance of the eye. To the Arabs the term Marrano meant..'Hypocrite', but in Spanish it was an old Spanish term in the middle ages meaning...'Swine'.

Our Author tells us that some of the Marranos fled to the Balkans and joined existing communities, or to other European countries. Many even went into the Moslem countries and did the same thing..converted..but remained in secret...Jews. As the Moslem invasion of Spain occurred, most of the Jews fled north to the Christian sector, however a few did embrace the Moslem religion in that area and became 'Secret Jews' in the Moslem religion.

Our Author tells us that the Jews had been expelled from England in 1290, and from France in 1306, and from many German cities at the time of the plague called 'The Black Death'. But here in Spain at this later date then 200,000 of them came forth and joined the Catholic church and were baptised. Our Author tells us that the Marranos took their children to church for Baptism then hurried home to wash off the traces of Baptism as soon as possible. They went to a Priest to be married, then hurried home for their own ceremonies. The 'New Christians' assumed high positions both in the church and in the government as they married their daughters to the Nobility of the nation. As they were converted to Christianity they became known among themselves as 'Forced Ones' in contrast to Old Christians.

As the fifteenth century advanced it became obvious that this mass conversion to Christianity had not solved the problems for the Christians or the Jews. Instead this body of Marranos had pushed their way into every walk of life, and were causing many problems. Baptism according to our Author had done little more than to convert a considerable number of Jews from infidels outside the Catholic church to Heretics inside of it. The Marranos had worked their way into the highest positions inside the state, and above all into the financial and taxation branches, and were rapidly accumulating vast fortunes, while snapping up all the best matrimonial alliances at Court for their daughters, and high advancements for their sons. This led of course to great uneasiness between the New Christians (Marranos) and the people of the old Faith, as well as the administration then in power. (Unquote)

We remember from our study that there was such a difference when Israelites went into a nation. There they quickly settled into the middle class of the nation, and made no trouble. But this is not the nature of the Jew. There was trouble everywhere in Spain, and it grew worse instead of better. For some length of time a program of Inquisition had been discussed by the Catholic church, and we now wonder what was this Inquisition and why was it deemed necessary?

Our Author tells us that men really believed in a Heaven and a Hell, and wanted to save people from this 'Hell'. By the time of the Spanish Inquisition the Jews had been run out of England and out of other places as well, and the charge against them was always..'RITUAL MURDER'..however this charge was always denied. But here in Spain as the attitude was changing some of the Jews chose to become..'New Christians' as to escape trouble. And this being called 'Christian' opened the doors to all avenues in the Christian West. The Marranos then moved into all lines of Commerce, Banking, Medicine, and others while the wealthy began marrying into the Royal households of the nations in which they lived.

Finally as Spain was about to be taken over much as Judea had been so long before, the Catholic church and the government of Spain moved to set the Inquisition in place. As the Inquisition started it was for the purpose of ridding the church of false Christians there in Spain, and the Sovereign was empowered by the Pope of Rome to appoint three Bishops or others suitable..learned in theology or the common law, being Priest, and above the age of 40 years they would have complete Jurisdiction over what was termed 'Heresy' here in the kingdom of Castile. Thus appointed was Migulate-Morillo..a master of theology, and Juan de San Martin..Bachelor of Theology, both were Friars of the Dominican Order. Assisting them was a prosecutor and two receivers of confiscations.

As this Inquisition started the Marranos who had long played a prominent part in every facet of local life, many being now immensely wealthy, and professing Christians in public thought they could surely stop this Inquisition. After all they had become Bishops in the Catholic church and some had higher positions, and they had much power in the political field, and even at the Royal Court, thus they thought they could control this Inquisition...and they were able to do just that.

In a Papal Brief seven other Inquisitors were nominated to help in this work of the Inquisition. One of these men was Thomas de Torquemada, who was also the Queen's Confessor, had been since she was small, and until then he had been content to be the power behind the scene. Torquemada was however Jewish in his background, but under his direction the Inquisition rapidly took shape. He resided in a Palace, surrounded himself with a bodyguard of 200 infantry, 50 mounted men, and 50 archers for each of the infantry. The Inquisition thus forced a clear cut division between the 'converted Jews' and the 'Unconverted Jews', thus the converted Jews if they were discovered to be 'Secret Jews' went into exile, while 'Unconverted' Jews were to be forced into conformity or they would lose their wealth, and in some cases their lives. It was claimed that the Marranos were moving to establish Judaism as the state religion in Spain instead of the Catholic Faith, thus this brought about the Inquisition.

As I read these two books it seemed that the Marranos moved to the head of the Inquisition to protect themselves, and then they moved rather harshly against their own people at first, under the guise of this program of the Inquisition. However there always seemed to be a way of escape for those who had wealth, and besides this program of confiscation brought much wealth to the leaders of the Inquisition. Some of the wealth was to go to the State, and 1/5 of it to the Roman Catholic Treasury at the Vatican. In time however the amount going to the Sovereign seemed to disappear altogether. The property and wealth confiscated began to accumulate into quite a sum, and this brought an intensification of the program of the Inquisition...against the Moslems and the Protestants of that nation.

Rome established that those convicted of Heresy were to be excluded from entering the Holy Orders of the Church. They could no longer enter into other professions such as being physicians, apothecary, tutors of the young, advocates or farmers of Revenue. If it was found that they possessed even a bit of 'New Christian' blood this was believed to be passed on to their children for several generations, and Spain was thus barring them from all these areas.

The Marranos...the Sephardim Jews were thus being driven out of Spain if they did not profess Christianity. As they left they went into all the Mediterranean areas such as to Italy, Africa, Turkey, and even into Portugal as well. But we find that the more wealthy Marranos had no trouble leaving the Nation and there was no confiscation of their wealth which they took with them. Those who professed Christianity and maintained that posture were not bothered.

In Portugal the King's Confessor became head of the Inquisition in that nation. He also was of Jewish extraction. He then went to Rome and remained there for ten years as an agent of the so called 'New Christians'. He was well supplied with money, the key to the Papal throne.

In spite of all the claims of persecution, our Author tells us that there was no stratum of society to which the 'New Christians' did not penetrate. They were to be found in every walk of life from beggar to Statesman, and their wealth was always quoted as being enormous. And those with this wealth paid the man at the top of the Inquisition, and they left with their wealth, and left behind an effigy of themselves to be burned by those of the Inquisition, while they changed their names in the place where they settled and went on with their lives. We are told that they mourned the names left behind that were born in effigy.

To accumulate this great wealth we find that the Marranos monopolized commerce, with in a few years after their conversion as 'New Christians'. One of the greatest Banking Houses of Europe was that established by the Mendes family at Lisbon. A small business in precious stones became a large export business in Portugal, and this was built and owned by one of the prominent Marrano families of Jewish extraction who reverted to his ancestral faith before his death.

A number of the most illustrious physicians of that day were also Marranos, they were physicians to the King and the Royal Court officials. Inter-marrying with the Nobility took place on a large scale. One of the physicians married a member of the famous Aragon family. However there were also in Portugal and Spain a number of so called 'Puritan Houses' who would not mix with any who could not prove a lineage as unblemished as their own. But here in the 15th., Century when this new theory of Race surfaced..that there came this cry of Anti-Semitism altho the Roman church had been dealing with heresy for centuries.

One morning a placard was found attached to every Christian church door saying:...'Messiah has not come, Jesus Christ was not the true Messiah'. Always this was their cry as they became so called 'Christians' by day, and Jews in secret by evening, or behind closed doors. Nuns, Monks, and Friars were Marranos who joined these ranks and obtained great distinction in the church, altho each ended their lives as professing Jews. This was some of the problems the Catholic church was faced with as they tried to make the Inquisition work.

Our Author also tells us that many of the Marranos had gone into the Holy Orders of the church, and the profession of Religious life in Spain because of the advantages to their lives. But always after several years of professing the Christian religion such as that of St. Dominic, they would move on to such a city as Leghorn in their Friar Habits then they would change their cowl for a 'Ganephe', and the idle Friars became professing Jews. One such Jew was asked how he could comply with this religion which he had studied for 5 years at Saragoza Spain. He merrily made this reply:..(Quote) 'His compliance was only the work of his nerves and his muscles, and that his anatomy told him nothing of the heart was therein concerned.' (Unquote)

Our Author tells us that there were many Jews especially in Spain and Portugal that assured him there were Jews among the Judges of the Inquisition, and altho we are told thru both books of the terrible fate of these people..'the daytime Christians', how they were tortured and burned at the stake, still we are also told that most left their effigies behind to be burned, then took new names, and this time Hebrew names and moved on to other countries if their lives and wealth were threatened in one place. When a person was arrested for Heresy his property was supposed to be immediately confiscated thus this had to be avoided. As the Inquisition lasted year after year then less and less money came in, and less found its way where it originally was supposed to go, but the Inquisitors seemed to become more wealthy every year. Our Author tells us that many people would bear false witness against each other, anything to protect themselves, thus many innocent people were caught in the trap of the Inquisition, and some lost their property and were imprisoned for years before being able to prove their innocence.

Our Author then tells us that by no means were all those persons upon whom a capital sentence had been pronounced were burned alive as generally imagined..(Quote) this was a traditional Protestant fallacy, which has no basis in Fact. Even after the culprit had been condemned, a profession of repentance was usually sufficient to secure the mercy of garotting, and only the corpse would be cremated at the stake. (Unquote)

Our Author then tells us that it is frequently stated and generally believed that the principal object of the Inquisition was to burn Jews, but strictly speaking this was completely untrue. The object of the Inquisition was to deal with 'Heretics' within the church. Persons that had been baptized, asserted they were Christians and then departed from the practice and teaching of the Catholic church...these were the ones the Inquisition was supposed to be after. The professing Jews did not come into the scope of these activities unless they interfered with some person, or preached Heresy. If someone could prove he was a Jew, had always been a Jew, never was baptized and never pretended to be Christian, then they were not bothered by the Inquisition, but the Civil power was another matter.

As Spain seemed to be solving her problem then the Marranos came in from Portugal and this kept the Inquisition going. As the Spanish conquest of Portugal came about the Marranos entered upon a new phase of their resistance. They formed a National party in opposition to the Spanish rule. Their leader..Antonio was Prior of Craton, and he was also of past Jewish origin. He was also the son of an old Royal House thru the union of his family with a beautiful Christian lady. The Marranos then bought pardons of all past offenses, with their great wealth and thus most escaped any persecution.

In 1435 the Balearic Islands has seen the Inquisition reach them and this was because of the reported RITUAL MURDERS. The Jews were accused of having crucified a Saracen on Good Friday in mockery of THE PASSION. After this stirred up the population no one admitted being Jewish who lived on that Island. However behind the scene life was pretty much the same and altho we are here again told that many Marranos were burned at the stake, still the native 'New Christians' remained numerous. In 1678 there were many of them there, and they were still practicing Judaism.

Our Author tells us that this is the way the Inquisition was to work:..First an edict of Grace was published, inviting any person to come forward and confess, a time limit of 40 days was assigned for this purpose. In this stage those who came forward to be 'New Christians' would tell on others of their neighbors, and a vast amount of information came forth which would then be checked out. There was then an Edict of Faith issued. This summoned the faithful to denounce any person they found guilty of certain offenses. As the Inquisition gained strength then a vast amount of wealth would be generated, and the high officials (remember they were Marranos) found it to their interest to procure convictions and brought these convictions especially on persons of means, and thus heavy fines would be paid. This of course also drained the Peninsula of accumulated wealth for centuries. The stories of the atrocities, our Author tells to the actual proportions of real martyrs among the Jews was not large. Even of the minority who were burned alive, some were those who professed innocence, but had sufficient funds to procure mercy. This then was how the Inquisition worked, the sentences were handed down by the Inquisition, and in most cases the ceremony was a public one, advertised so as to draw a crowd. Two stages were erected, one for those convicted and one for the Inquisitors, and the authorities, both Civil and Ecclesiastical, with an altar draped in black between the two platforms.

The ceremony then opened with all the Clergy in that city following the Standard of the Inquisition. The condemned followed the Clergy. The Spanish Inquisitor wore a long yellow robe with a black cross. These condemned wore a cap with devils embroidered and fires of hell displayed. When all were seated on their platforms then a notary would administer a solemn oath to all present to defend the Catholic Faith, and to support the Holy Office. A sermon was then delivered by some distinguished Ecclesiastic, and then the Penitents would appear before the Altar to hear their sentences. Two confessors would be supplied to each penitent so that they could make confession even at the last minute. Those who did not confess were convicted and escorted to a place of burning, and anyone who had fled left an effigy of themselves and these would be burned at that time. At one time...for instance 55 Judaizers were convicted, but only three met death, the others were only burned in effigy.

Who then were the Martyrs, for most at least of the Marranos managed to be burned only in effigy? They then changed their names and moved on to other countries? Those running the Inquisition, were they interested in preserving the Catholic Faith or were they using the Catholic religion to supply their lust for torture, greed, and revenge? In Portugal..old Christians were said to suffer as well. One old Hebrew thought he was a prophet, he preached the laws of Moses, and some not of Jewish descent were his followers, but all were rounded up and brought to the burning. One is said to have disappeared from the flames.

As a result of this taking the Jews into the Catholic church then the Inquisitors turned on the Protestants who were said to be Heretics if they did not go along with the doctrines of the Catholic church, and this was termed 'Lutherism'.

In the old countries of Europe the 'New Christians' as refugees took the lead in pushing the new type of Christianity, and this kept trouble going between them and against the Protestants. To show you the two faces of the Marranos as our Author pointed this out we cite this as an example. Antonio Homen was the leader of the Marrano group at Coimbra, Portugal. He was the son of a wealthy Jewish merchant and a Christian lady of one of the old families. He was a Theologian at times, and at other times he acted as Rabbi, then at times he would appear as a Priest. He wrote many important works and the Inquisitor General thought highly oh him and especially recommended him to the Pope, yet many years later he reverted strictly to Judaism and was arrested.

Another instance:..Don Lope de Vera was of gentle birth, no Jewish blood in him. He went to the University at age 14 and he began to study Hebrew and the Scriptures. It seemed he would, as we would say, begin to think on the lines of Identity. Then a Catholic man denounced him to the Inquisition and when he insisted he was a Hebrew, for that was the true religion he was then imprisoned. He declared that he was of the tribe of Judah, now a believer in The Christ as Messiah, and he was flogged for not confessing to be a Catholic. As he was led to his death he was heard to say:..'Unto thee O LORD do I light up my soul,' It seems that the head of the Inquisition would not allow any expression like this. Others were heard to say as they were led to the flames:..'Hear O Israel, the LORD our God is ONE LORD', but this was not the cry of the Jews, and our Author tells us that the Inquisitors did not want any religion but Catholic, but we think this is not quite true. Therefore we wonder just who really were the Martyrs put to death.

It seems that the Marranos were able to move freely from Portugal to Spain and even to France as they wished. And even in the New World there were Martyrs according to our Author. And according to our Author in Mexico in 1649 people were telling of their attachment to Judaism, and their contempt of Christianity. Catholics were called 'Bigoted Catholics', and we are told that year after year trials would be drawn out before the sentences were carried out thus prolonging the agony of the people. The Marranos were described as a subterranean people holding fast to their Ancient faith, but actually the Marranos were mostly the wealthy people in the different nations in which they lived, and they retained their own synagogues and Rabbis and managed when they died to be buried by their fathers. They adapted to the time and the place and said it did not matter what happened, but their hearts remained Jewish. The Messianic idea did not exhaust itself with the denial of the claims of Jesus as the Christ. The Marranos continued to hope and pray for their old land which they called the land of Promise, saying that Judaism is a rule of life rather than a mere creed.

After the 16th., Century our Author tells us that the Marranos began to take their guidance from the Latin Bible. They turned to reciting prayers both Jewish and Christian. They had carried their old Ancient rituals with them as they moved out from old Jerusalem. Their Saturday Sabbath in old Jerusalem was simply instituted by the Jews for the convenience of their merchants. (Remember that Israel set their Sabbaths each year, and they were not always on Saturday.) However as time went on our Author tells us that the old rituals were almost forgotten. Pentecost disappeared and Hanukkah emerged as the feast of Candles. They brought out the so called feast of Esther, and to the Marranos this became second to no other feast day. It was observed on the full moon of February, one month before the Hebrew Passover. The Bi-weekly fasts which were unknown to Israel became a ritual to the Marranos. The Inquisitors were especially concerned with those who turned their faces to the wall in the last moments of their life, when all was over a piece of gold or a jewel was placed in the mouth of the dead person, as a 'Toll' to be paid on being ferried over the Jordan. This however was not Hebrew Mythology..this was from some other source. The Jewish rites after a funeral are not the Hebrew custom either. In marriage the mixed-marriages continued if the non Jew confirmed to Judaism. For a prolonged period the Marranos handed on from father to son the secrets of their old family names. But on escaping to other countries the Marranos changed their names, adopted Biblical names and this allowed people to be mourned abroad by different names where actually the people being mourned were very much alive in another part of the world. Many as we have said fled the forced Christianization, and left as we have said effigies of themselves to be burned, and as our Author tells us they did this so as to return to their first love..Judaism. As they migrated it was a controlled thing, for there were agents posted along the way to inform the moving Jews as to the safe way to journey. Letters were drawn up, and circulated, giving them minute by minute instructions as to their journey, roads to take, Inns to stay in, and where to receive help and advice. Then in the New Country they chanted their names, adopted Biblical names and got on with their lives.

In 1532., the Emperor Charles V forbade admittance to the Los Countries of these called 'New Christians' (Marranos) who said they were on their way to Turkey. In their migrations it was said they were taking their personal fortunes, and also munitions of war, and the art of their manufacturing to be used against Christendom wherever they settled. In that period of time many of the Portugal Marranos went to Cyprus, Palestine, Constantinople, and Salonica which at this period was the leading Jewish center of Europe. As they settled in these places they threw off their disguise as Christian Catholics. Beatric-da-Luna became known as Gracia Mendes the most adored Jewish woman in her day.

Joan Mignes married his cousin Regna and was henceforth called Josepi-Nasis. His career is like a tale out of the Arabian Nights. He rose to a high position at the Sublime-Porte, so that for a time he was considered virtually the ruler of the Turkish Empire, then the most powerful nation in Europe. He was able to recoup the confiscation of his property by seizing 1/3 of every cargo dispatched from Turkey bound for Egypt. His interest was then solicited by every power in Europe, and he was able to sway the election of a new ruler of Moldavia. He avenged himself on Spain by encouraging a revolt in that nation. He avenged himself on Venice by bringing a declaration of war in which she lost the Island of Cyprus. He was made the Duke of Naxos and the seven Islands, and ruled that Duchy thru a deputy, but Nasi himself remained in Constantinople. He attempted to create a Jewish center in Palestine, around the Ancient city of Tiberias. He died in 1579., but no professing Jew in recent history ever attained such power.

Alvaro Mendes was born in 1520 in Portugal, he also was of mixed parentage, he attained great wealth and traveled from one place to another. He changed his name to Solomon Aben Ayish and settled in Constantinople and he became also a most important figure in International diplomacy. He even sent agents to meet with Queen Elizabeth of England. He did his upmost to help set up the Jewish settlement in Palestine at Tiberias. He died in 1603, and his son took over his efforts to maintain that colony for a foothold in old Palestine.

A Portuguese Clergyman filled a whole volume with the names of the Marranos who left Portugal, and the amount of wealth they took with them as they left. He tells us that since they were considered 'New Christians' at the time then the taking of their wealth with them could not be prevented. He also reports that after they migrated it was noted that they threw off the disguise of Christianity, and this occurred even as they settled in Rome. But then Marranos from Portugal had easy goings under the Renaissance because of the tolerance of the Popes at that time. They were granted safe conduct, and were considered exclusive subjects of the Papal Jurisdiction.

Always this seems to be the same story...after reverting to Judaism..and their regular conduct then before to long the attitude about them would change and people were ready to expel them from their countries. In the 1556 plus years, Gracia Mendes was the power in the east and the Pope was directed to release all prisoners and he did just that. It was the Jewish Merchants who controlled the trade of the Turkish Empire and they brought their pressure to bear as well.

Next the Jews began their migration to Venice where they already had a major Jewish Colony which was well protected. However as they moved our Author tells us that they also left some as 'New Christians' behind so as to still control trade. In Venice however you heard the Portuguese language everywhere, and in 1651 you saw many red hatted Jews who had once been Christian Priests in Portugal. There in Venice they built a great Synagogue and now were Rabbis.

In in Florence Italy, was an eminent Portugal Jurists. He was a judge on the Ecclesiastical court of appeals, and a so called 'New Christian'. After many years fulfilling his duties on this court he transferred to Venice, and declared his allegiance to Judaism. Then two other jurists practicing in Florence, Italy followed suit and one was a Judge on the Supreme Court. This is a country where Jews were not to be Judges, but their disguises as 'New Christians' allowed this to happen, and their transfers caused a great scandal.

In Venice was other prominent Marranos, one was Immanuel Aboad...great grandson of the last sage of Castile who returned to Judaism. Jacob Aboab was another wealthy merchant, the father of an illustrious line of Rabbis. Also in Venice was Jacob Mendes-da-Silva the former Historiographic Royal at the Court of Spain. Always as the wealth of the Marranos grew then the kings of the nations would come to them for help in developing commerce, and they were promised no Inquisition or denunciation against them or their families, even tho they had lived in the past in the guise of Christendom. This was of course an open invitation to the Marranos of Spain and Portugal to establish themselves in different port cities. This occurred in Italy, in the Port cities of Pisa and Leghorn. There they formed their own communities and set their own life style, which money had bought for them.

In Western and Northern Europe the settlement of the Marranos followed a somewhat different pattern. The Marranos retained their disguise of Catholicism, complying with its rites and ceremonies. At most they continued some sort of Crypto-Jewish existence in the privacy of their own homes, just as they had done before leaving Spain and Portugal.

France it seems had expelled the Jews in 1394., but since the Marranos now called themselves Catholic Christians they were free to migrate with- out any interference. These so called 'New Christians' were here in France granted rights of residence, naturalization, property rights, and so forth by Henry II in 1550, and this continued until 1614 when once again they were ordered to leave France, in one month..ordered by Louis XIII once more to move on. But the 'New Christians' who had kept their disguise in place were not disturbed, after all they were the wealthy merchants and were considered of service to their community. These Marranos who had kept their disguise could not lay aside and return to Judaism openly as was the case in Turkey, Venice and Leghorn. However they finally began to revert more and more openly to their ancestral faith and practices. Synagogues were built and hardly any disguises were any longer in place. To the world it was obvious that these merchants who came from Portugal were Jews, but they were not officially so designated. They thus married in the Catholic church, then went home to perform their own ceremonies. They had their children baptized at church but the rite of Circumcision was performed by expert practitioners. They had a burial ground reserved for their own use, altho it was not officially called a Jewish Cemetery.

It was not until 1705 that the practice of having marriage ceremonies celebrated in the Catholic church was abandoned. In Bordeaux France there was now seven synagogues operating openly, and down to the last decade of the 18th., Century there was a perpetual stream of Marranos from Spain and Portugal. Here they received into what was termed 'The Covenant of Abraham' or the KKNefusot Yehudah..(Holy Congregation) of Bayonne. But the 18th., Century we were seeing all this changed. And now it was forbidden to discriminate against the Jews, and they were once more eligible for all public offices not only in Spain, but other places in the Western world, and they were thus once more on the top of the heap. Not molested..they climbed high in political life, and their wealth increased and our Author tells us that one of the founders of..'Higher Criticism' was of Marrano extraction altho now he claimed to be a Huguenot. They became eminent physicians there in France, and Jean Baptiste-de-Silva was principal of the faculty of the University of Paris, and medical attendant to Louis XV. All this while they continued to act in public as devout Catholic Christians. But when some port lost its commercial value they would move on to another because basically the Marranos were Merchants and Bankers.

Always the Christians sought to win them over to their love of the Gospel and Jesus The Christ, but sooner or later all thru these reports the Marranos would finally drop the outward show of Christianity, and then trouble would erupt. Samuel-de Silva was a local physician of Oporto, but he became a notable Theologian and writer. He championed the doctrine of the immortal a cover. He was the father-in-law of the Physician, to Christian IV of Denmark, but finally he was expelled from Hamburg, Germany in 1640 because of his views on Christianity.

In the seventh century little colonies of Marranos was found in every country in Europe. Some even as far away as Russia and India. These colonies were found in every important commercial center in Europe as well as in America and the far east. They played a role which was altogether out of proportion to their numbers in the trade of all western Europe. Most of the important Marrano families were International members, and they settled thus in each of the great centers of the world. They assumed names for economic reasons even when they had lived in Portugal and Spain. They controlled not only commerce, but precious stones, coral, sugar, tobacco, and similar commodities. From the middle of the 17th., century they were playing an important part in the establishment of the Great national banks. It was the Marranos above all whom Joseph Addison had in mind when he wrote in his famous 'Essay on the Jews'..(Quote) they are indeed, so disseminated through all the trading posts of the world, they are becoming the instruments by which the most distant nations converse with one another, and by which mankind is knit together in a general correspondence.'

As the Jews from the east...the Ashkenezi Jews came in thru Poland and Germany, the Marranos (Sephardim Jews) accentuated the difference which existed between them, and those so called far eastern Jews. They regarded inter-marriage with them as little better than Apostasy. The Marranos excluded these so called Eastern Jews as far as they were able from the Synagogue dignitaries and offices. But these people were just members of a different culture. They were however considered as foreigners, but it was impossible to exclude them simply because they were Jews. Thus in Holland, Hamburg, and in England the settlements and the Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe, long followed the Marranos automatically into settlements in the civilized West. They set the example for the abandoning of the traditional Jewish costume and the Hybrid Jewish dialect. They may be termed without exaggeration 'the first modern Jews'.

In the Low Countries the most important 'New Christian' in the colony was Diego Mendes who managed the Antwerp Bank founded by his family in Lisbon which now enjoyed the coveted pepper monopoly. Finally his conduct could not longer be tolerated and Mendes was arrested. But heavy fines were paid and Henry VIII of England intervened since the House of Mendes was his financial agent, and the case was dropped. But again some of the Marranos fled but they also left an effigy to be burned while they assumed new names and built new lives in a new place.

The Eastern Jews kept coming to the west until they outnumbered the Sephardi, composed of the descendants of the Marranos. But the Sephardi managed to maintain their superiority in wealth, and general influence for some time to come. Back in 1666 there had been a wave of excitement among the Jews, as it was thought that their Messiah had come..His name.. Sabbatai Levi..the pretender. All the Jews were thus to come out and proclaim their allegiance to Judaism. The presses were kept busy turning out devotional work which they hoped would hasten the great consummation. It was said that (quote)..'This is our Messiah, he is not the one the Christians claim.' (Unquote) But their Messiah then turned out to be just the pretender and some who had come out of their disguise as 'New Christian' then moved on to other places.

As we have told you before the Jews were banished from England in 1290 because of the claim of 'Ritual Murder', but there is evidence that they were back in London, from Spain by 1492. The Mendes financial house was established in England, and in 1553 Marrano communities were settled not only in London, but also in Bristol. In this period of time they posed as 'Calvinist Refugees' from Europe. The Protestants seemed to be more tolerant, and from their colony the Jews then became doctors to high officials, even to the Queen. Then by 1594 again the English began to realize who these people were, and the Marranos were again in trouble in England. However one sect of Christians..the Puritans suggested that the Christian Sabbath be changed to the seventh day, and others brought out that a more favorable frame of mind toward the Jews might be best, so let them be the people of the Testament, for it was reasoned that if you made the Jews the people of the Old Testament then they would be unable to withstand the attractions of the new and purer form of Christianity, once they had the opportunity to become acquainted with it at close range.

In 1649 a petition was presented asking for the recall of the Jews to England. Oliver Cromwell was head of this idea. It is said he was thinking of the material advantage which the Jews could bring to England with their far flung International connections in Commerce.

The Marrano traveler Antonio de Montequinos, alias Aaron Levi Montezinos returned from America and claimed he had found in Quito, Ecuador, certain people who belonged to the lost tribes of Ruben and Levi. He claimed they were even acquainted with traditional confessions of faith, and ceremonies of the Old Testament. Now that it was decided that the Jews were the people of the Old testament then the final redemption of the Jews would begin only when the scattering of the Jewish people was complete. They now used the reference to Daniel their text saying of course that since they were the people of the Old Testament then they were the Holy people who were to be scattered. And since Deuteronomy 28:64..SAID THEY WOULD BE DISPERSED FROM ONE END OF THE EARTH UNTO THE since he had found Hebrews in America, then they were only missing in Great Britain. Thus if they were introduced into Britain the dispersion would be over and the Jewish Messianic deliverance could begin.

In October of 1651..a formal petition was sent to England for the readmittance of the Jews and Cromwell was very supportive. However many people were opposed and it took much time, but behind the scene the refugees came in. A house was rented for a Synagogue, and a piece of property was secured for a cemetery, and the colony was in place, not by permission, but by 'conniving' and finally London also became a Marrano headquarter. By the middle of the 18th., century they had begun to move about in English society once more on terms of actual equality, assimilation had already made great strides.

The Ashkenazi Jews from Central and Eastern Europe then took advantage of the strides made by their co-religionists, but it was the Marranos with their so called from of 'New Christian'...being both Jew and Christian that brought about the Christian declaration that the Jews could be the people of the Old Testament, and in this way the Jews would be happy in the Christian religion.

The Jesuits are also credited with helping to eradicate Racial prejudice. They even went so far in Portugal to influence officials to remove the names of the 'New Christian' families from their records. And the so called 'Puritan' households who prided themselves on no outside race alliances had been made..we are arrange matches for their daughters with members of families with Jewish blood. On May 23, 1773 all legal distinctions between old and new Christians was removed. Pombal was said to have received an enormous amount of money for this move. Marranoism was then officially abolished from Portugal and then Spain and now Free Masonry began to make its inroads. For sometime still the lists of families with tainted blood was posted on church doors so that the faithful would not marry with them, but in time this also was relaxed.

Our Author contends that after Columbus came to South America that large grants of land were given to the Marranos, and Colonial commerce would then be effected as a matter of fact. All thru South America they penetrated with their great wealth. The name of de-Silva shows up in the New World as does the name of Cohen. In North America at New York the Jews were not for sometime allowed to stay overnight in the city. The Governor Peter Stuyvisant ordered them to leave, but letters arrived from the Governor of the Dutch West India Company asking that they be allowed to remain. Some of the Marranos then migrated to Newport, Rhode Island, and started a congregation there. They became Merchants established in the United States before the Revolutionary war. And it was not long before these colonies had returned to their religion of Judaism.

But the 18th., century we find that the circle of Marrano communities was complete from the Indian Ocean to the shores of the Atlantic. There was no branch of human activities which they did not try to touch. Many who had attained distinction in the Holy Orders of the Catholic church now became renown as Rabbis..distinguished scholars in the Rabbinical school as they returned to Judaism. Many supposedly trapped by the Inquisition were actually only burned in effigy in their native countries, but trying to trace the Marranos by their names is hard for they keep changing their names. Some even never confess Judaism formally, thus were able to raise to high positions in the Christian west. This assuming of Hebrew names helps with their disguise.

Our Author tells us that Marrano blood runs in the veins of many of the proudest of most noble houses. In England hardly a single family of the old Aristocracy is free from such admixture or alliance.

The Marranos as they became 'New Christians' had a need for a translation of the Bible, and the earliest product was from the Ferrara Press, and these editions were ones based upon the traditional rendering current among Spanish Jews. The first was published in two editions, one intended for Christian eyes, and the other strictly for the Jews which contained a list of prophetical lessons, gave the year according to the era of creation, and the names of editor and publisher was changed to Jewish names of Abraham Usque, and Tom-Tob Anathias instead of their Marrano counterparts. It was from this Bible in 1553 that successive generations of Marranos learned their Judaism. Jewish publishers, Jewish booksellers handled the translations of the Handbooks of Jewish law and practices, calendars and so forth in 1761-66. They wrote vindication of Jewish translations, and Elijah Monlalto composed an acute examination of the Messianic prophecies of the 53rd., chapter of Isaiah. Saul Morlay then wrote a defense of the Talmud, and now that the Marranos were the people of the Old Testament then their literature must bear the imprint of their suffering. In fact they combed the Old Testament for accounts of their suffering. For instance:..Psalm 30:..'O LORD thou hast brought my soul from the grave, thou has kept me alive, that I should not go down into the pit.'..In their translation this became:..'Doomed in the depth of dwell, in the Inquisitions hell. From those fierce Lion's hard abutments, thou hast redeemed me, healed all my misery. For thou didst see how deeply I repent.'...and Psalms 10:2...'The wicked in his pride doth persecute the poor'...became in their translation:..'The wicked prosper and their terrors fall upon the just, arraigned in the hall of that sad court which dastards Holy call'.

In 1627 poetical versions of the books of Esther, Ruth and Lamentations showing clearly the indications of the religion of the author..were published. By the middle of the 17th., century the Inquisition appeared to be at the height of its power, but mostly Moslems and Protestants were those who were falling under its scope. Durante de Silva had promised money, men and ships to stop the Inquisition in Spain, and the Jesuits took up the fight and the power of the Inquisition began to fall. With the start of the 19th., century we saw the weakening of traditional values which led to an undermining of religious forces, and a discarding of Ancient traditions, and these accumulated forces rushed forth to try once more to destroy the Christian Faith. We find from these books that as they found that joining the church to change the doctrines from the inside did not work completely then the Marranos took over the Inquisition so as to protect their own. Thus the Ancient battle goes on and on..Genesis 3:15. Our Author has been very frank in describing what took place, and there is much for the Christian to learn in this work. Since you cannot and our Author even doubted some of the stories of suffering that he outlined in these books, then we have just given you an outline of the main theme of the books.


CHRISTIANITY TODAY..1989, from an Identity point of view...E.M.

The idea approved in the 1800's to make the Jews the people of the Old Testament..thinking perhaps the Jews would then turn to accept Jesus the Christ, this Saviour which the Christians love..this being contrary to the Scriptures, just a man made theory...we find that it did not work, altho yet today many Christians are still blinded by this man made theory. What then is this Faith which the enemy has tried so hard to destroy? Why this hatred for the foundation of our Faith? From an Identity point of view we find that YAHWEH sent into the world..The scriptures..or the Old Testament, and then came into the world as THE LIVING WORD..and fulfilled the Written Word of the Old Testament.

In the Scriptures of the Old Testament...the 24 hour day started in the evening, thus you could perhaps say that the allegory and symbolism of the Old Testament is as tho a veil is over that story of a race of people.. from Adam. However the latter part of the 24 hour day could be likened to the New Testament since here we find the 'LIVING WORD' and HE is the Light..the Light of the World. YAHSHUA..this Jesus of Nazareth walked the earth, was seen and heard by many. The Faith of restoration was brought to earth by Adam and Eve..and the story is found in the Old Testament..which brings us to THE LIVING WORD OF THE NEW TESTAMENT. Of course the enemy did not understand altho they heard His words, but then again..they were not to understand and He told us this. He also did not tell us to give away out inheritance in an attempt to try to 'Save' the people of the World Order.

Martin Luther altho he did not preach Identity as such, still was telling us that we must look to the Old Testament for the Faith we carry, which brought us to the Saviour. He calls attention to the symbolism and the allegory of the Old Testament then describes as an example the symbolism of the swaddling clothes of the baby Jesus:...(quote) The outer course woolen clothes could be likened to the testimony of the law, the inner linen cloths to the words of the prophets. (Unquote)

We find that the Apostles taught and wrote..from the Old Testament, for these words were fulfilled in Jesus of Nazareth and they were his witnesses. The Prophets wrote of these promises made by YAHWEH before the Gospel of His Embodiment as YAHSHUA-Saviour. As HE came..The Living Word..He fulfilled the promises made in the Old Testament. There is not a word in the New Testament which does not look back into the Old Testament where it has been recorded. Therefore this Adamic Race has the Scriptures..the Old Testament, and the Gospels..THE LIVING WORD..of the New Testament. Anything added to this message is simply man's word.

The true church is not made of wood and stone, but of the company of believing offspring, who from the beginning held fast to the promises, and now hold fast to the LIVING WORD..this YAHSHUA-Jesus of Nazareth who came in the flesh so that 'He should be made manifest to Israel'..and 'for this cause John the Baptist came Baptizing with water.' John 1:31.

The LIGHT of the Scripture cannot be apprehended without true Faith. This is the Light which shines in the darkness (of the world order), but is not understood by the darkness, since the Saviour had been promised by all the Prophets..ONLY TO ISRAEL..and then HE came fulfilling this promise, how could the followers of this Saviour later give away their inheritance unless they did not understand their Scriptures and the Gospels?

With the coming of YAHSHUA-THE LIVING WORD..the promise marked by the symbol of Circumcision was fulfilled. Then HE in the flesh instituted for Abraham's seed a new sign which was..Baptism. He instituted this in Person, but the same Faith in the Saviour which was in Abraham abides forever. This ritual of Baptism now has the same significance as did Circumcision in Abraham's day. However Jesus of Nazareth was born under the law, so that He might redeem Israel..His people who were under that law, and as a babe He subjected Himself to the ritual of circumcision, and if fact to all the ritual of the law altho He was bound by none. Therefore there is no other book which teaches this Christian Faith, but the Scriptures (Old Testament) which brings you the promises, and then fulfills them in the LIVING WORD of the New Testament..these books we call the Gospel. We therefore would remind you that we were not to believe more than what is written in the Scriptures and then confirmed by THE LIVING WORD. Within this Gospel of the LIVING WORD (of this kingdom in earth) lies the only hope for the world. Today the people of kingdom do not dwell on their heroism or the details of the battles fought by the followers of The Christ following the Crucifixion, Resurrection, and Ascension. These followers of Jesus The Christ with their Great the early days of Martyrdom went willingly to their death rather than deny that Jesus of Nazareth was their Messiah.

We tell you that almost 2000 years ago a babe was born in Bethlehem of Judea, and laid in a manger, and the world has not been the same since that night, altho the enemy has tried in every way to destroy His wipe that Name from the face of the earth. We believe HIS people should understand why HE came to walk here in the flesh, and to die on the Cross. We believe you must understand the symbolism of the Scriptures, under the New Covenant and its symbols, and what is replaced. We believe you must understand the phrases used in the Scripture such as..'Son of Man' and 'Son of God'. We believe that when these are understood you will see the outline of this story of Identity as outlined in the Old Testament and carried forward in the New. This will set the stage for the flowering of a system of religion, adapted to every conceivable situation in life, and yet so simple that the most unlearned, even children can understand it.

WE tell you that this Babe of Bethlehem whose words were so few, whose physical life as so soon ended, and whose sacrificial death upon the Cross was so wonderful, and altho the physical body died still thru this death...He lives and reigns, yes even in this world. Down thru the path of the Centuries His kingdom has grown and advanced, until few will doubt that it is destined to take possession of the whole world. Without a palace, a court, without any show of rank, wealth or poser offered to His subjects...His kingdom has advanced crushing all resistance whether the enemy realizes this or not. This kingdom is a strong kingdom because of all the elements of influence over the heart.

Here in the flesh HE completed His mission introduced the New Covenant with the new symbol of Baptism..introduced the sacrament of the communion and Israel entered a new dimension in their Faith.

The phrase..'Born Again'..took on a different meaning down thru the years altho Jesus had made it very plain when He said:..'that which is born of the flesh, is flesh (physical) but that which is born of Spirit is spirit.. Marvel not that I said unto you that ye must be born again.' When understood this phrase explains why some people were led by the Spirit to the Saviour..their Messiah, whereas others did not come. You then realize that He called to Israel, that He did not try at that time to bring all people to HIM.

Altho Christians have bent over backwards since then to try to bring all people still they have not succeeded. We believe that the ignoring or misunderstanding of what went before in the History of the Adamic Race has led to the infiltration, the changing of the doctrines of our Faith, for instance this putting the Marranos and their co-religionists in the place of the People of The Book.

Many areas of the Message which the LIVING WORD fulfilled has been lost over the years. One of these is the facts laid out by HIM when talking to the 'woman at the well'..HE said:..'Believe me the hour cometh when ye shall neither in this mountain, not at Jerusalem worship the Father (Spirit). The hour cometh and now is when the true worshipers shall worship the Father in Spirit, and in truth; for the Father seeketh such to worship HIM. God is Spirit, and they that worship HIM must worship HIM in Spirit and in truth.' Here YAHSHUA was announcing that a change was coming for Israel. The Old Covenant would be placed by the New Covenant and the new symbols. After the work on the Cross was finished, the land of Old Palestine, and the city of Old Jerusalem was to be something in the past for Israel. He had been moving His people westward for some time, and with them went the 'Jacob Stone'..The Ark of the Covenant' and 'New Jerusalem' among other things. Worship from then on would not be by rituals which brought Israel to Christ and then were nailed to His Cross; but from then on worship would be from the Heart. As prophecy was fulfilled in Old Palestine the New Covenant under new symbolism moved westward under the work of the Apostles. Martyrdom would be the fate of many starting with Stephen, because of their witness as to just who JESUS OF NAZARETH REALLY WAS. Some of the Apostles and Disciples for a time had trouble switching from the old covenant to the New, and letting go of old Jerusalem, but it was soon apparent that it was 'Lost Israel' that responded to their witness, and came when the Saviour called.

One of the Doctrines later preached which Martin Luther calls that 'Infamous Doctrine' is that called the Doctrine of 'Free Will' which he said came from the Papacy, the Universities, and the Monasteries, and which the church adopted. This Doctrine teaches that we by the power of 'free will' must first seek God, run after him and acquire His Grace. Martin Luther calls this doctrine 'Poison'. For God lays the first must be one of the Stones of His Stone Kingdom (Daniel 2:44) to be counted in that kingdom. He begat the stones of His did not have anything to do with that. He came to call and His Spirit called your name, and you come to HIM..Your Spirit responds as HE calls. But He is the one who plans, and He fulfills, you do not begin to pray, and do good work and call on HIM....No, your King comes to you of the kingdom, and that is the beginning of your salvation. But this is not your power, your plan...your free will, but by HIS Grace you believe. Your work is nothing unless it is within the scope of His plan. 'Thy King Cometh' not because you summoned HIM, but because HE seeks you, and remember that He came only to Israel. He sent His Apostles to The Lost Sheep of Israel...Matthew 10:6. 'The Bride, the Daughter of Zion, the Daughter of Jerusalem are one and the same people ..of this stone kingdom who by Faith teach and extend this Gospel of the Kingdom which is hidden in the Scriptures (Old Testament), and this Gospel of the Kingdom cannot be understood except as you identify people. Matthew 13:11.

By trying to...'Save'..the Jews you are following a false doctrine fed into the church earlier. It is the 'Seed' (Saviour) of the Woman (Israel) that was to bruise the Serpent's head. It was He-YAHSHUA as Saviour who came to deliver His people and thru them the World Order, from the power of the devil. But first He saves His people from their sins..which is the breaking of Divine Law, and HE being Just and having Salvation is the instigator of HIS Program. His plan which is laid out for us thru the Old Testament (the Scriptures). HE therefore brought those who He chose..HIS Sheep to Him as their Saviour, and as He walked the earth they came to HIM by the thousands. Then as they came to the Apostles they were told that this Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah-Saviour whom they were looking for.

Over the years the enemy has tried to change this Gospel of the Kingdom, and to a certain extent they have been able to negate some of the beliefs of Israel, but never have they been able to change HIS Program, His plan that is laid out in the Scriptures.

In the late 60's we were told that the Jews were ready to rebuild their Temple in Old Jerusalem, and many of the Christians were supposed to help them. But if the Christians were students of the Scriptures and the Gospels they would have remembered that Jesus had said that their old Temple.. Herod's Temple, would be destroyed and you were to understand that it would never be rebuilt. Looking thru History they would have known that at one time this very thing was tried. At that time as the workmen started this rebuilding they were driven off by balls of fire which came out of the ground near the old foundation. Fierce storms beat upon the workmen, and bolts of lightening descended destroying their work. Earthquakes shook the ground and volcanic flames burst thru the crevices, and work was stopped.

This is a great difference between the children of the kingdom, and the enemy in the way they have gone thru persecution thru the years. The Christians...those followers of Jesus went to their deaths as Martyrs gladly and willing and happy to join their Saviour who by way of the Cross paid for their sins...they were persecuted for years and years because of HIS NAME...but this was Christianity on the rise, and there was no stopping these people with this faith as old as Adam.

The Cross, which also the enemy hates, is however our symbol...of our Faith. You may think to change the plan of the Kingdom but we remind you that everything starts and ends with HE who was called Jesus of Nazareth. This one who was YAHWEH in the flesh as YAHSHUA-Saviour. There is no other foundation, no other way to Truth and Light. You may bring on Chastisement by trying to change the plan as laid out in the Old Testament and confirmed in the New, but it is not your way that will prevail. The end and the beginning and all in between rests with HIM...called Jesus of Nazareth. (End of message)